TABLE 1

Studies Selected to Describe Motor Abnormalities and Epilepsy in Infants and Children With Evidence of Congenital ZIKV Infection

Study TypeAuthorsNo. CasesAge at Follow-upPyramidal Signs DescribedExtrapyramidal Signs DescribedSeizures DescribedOther Findings Described
Case seriesBotelho et al6443–4 moHypertonia, hyperreflexiaNone describedPresent in 1 infant but not describedIrritability, abnormal vision, dysphagia, developmental testing abnormal
Case seriesDel Campo et al66830–10 moHypertonia, excessive posturing, increased deep tendon reflexes, spasticity, persistence of primitive reflexesDystonia in 1 of 83 infantsSeizures present but not described in this publicationStrabismus, nystagmus, arthrogryposis, features consistent with FBDS
Case seriesMoura da Silva et al548Birth to 8 moHypertonia, hyperreflexia, clonus, persistence of primitive reflexesFluctuating tone, asymmetric dyskinesia of the extremities absent during sleepAbnormal brain activity without epileptiform discharges, focal and multifocal epileptiform dischargesIrritability, dysphagia, clubfoot, arthrogryposis, late-onset microcephaly, FBDS
Case seriesvan der Linden et al12135–12 moHypertonia, hemiparesis, no grasp, persistence of asymmetric tonic neck reflexDyskinesia, dystoniaPresent in 7 infants but not describedDysphagia, irritability during first mo of life
Case seriesSchuler-Faccini et al1035Ages not givenHypertonia and/or spasticity, hyperreflexiaNone describedPresent in 3 infants but not describedIrritability, clubfoot, arthrogryposis
Case seriesAlves et al6310629–299 dNone describedNone describedSpasms, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, partial seizures; average age of onset is 192 dNone described
Case seriesCarvalho et al51371–5 moNone describedNone describedDiffuse low voltage, background asymmetry and modified hypsarrhythmia with or without burst; focal frontal or occipital spikes and/or sharp waves, multifocal spikes and/or sharp waves; electrographic seizures without clinical findings; abnormal EEGs without clinical seizuresNone described
Prospective cohort studyBrasil et al6249 of 117 live birthsFirst mo of lifeHypertonia, hyperreflexia, spasticity and abnormal posturing, hemiparesisNone describedPresent in 1 infant, abnormal EEGs in 2 infantsAbnormal neurologic findings, not specified in 4 of 49 infants
  • FBDS, fetal brain disruption sequence.