TABLE 1

Descriptive Characteristics of Individual Adverse Housing Conditions Compared With Stable Housing

Stable HousingBehind on RentMultiple MovesHomelessness
n (%)n (%)Pn (%)Pn (%)P
n (%)14 7105544 (27)1294 (8)1967 (12)
Site< .001< .001< .001
 Baltimore, Maryland3113 (21)1099 (20)205 (16)241 (12)
 Boston, Massachusetts2418 (16)1420 (26)398 (31)1106 (56)
 Little Rock, Arkansas3028 (21)1029 (19)232 (18)104 (5)
 Minneapolis, Minnesota2836 (19)640 (12)239 (19)304 (16)
 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania3315 (23)1356 (25)220 (17)212 (11)
Caregiver’s place of birth.01.10< .001
 Born in United States11 144 (76)4100 (74)1009 (78)1580 (81)
 Immigrant3535 (24)1432 (26)283 (22)381 (19)
Child’s sex.75.95.21
 Male7880 (54)2984 (54)692 (54)1083 (55)
 Female6830 (46)2560 (46)602 (47)884 (45)
Child’s age (mean ± SD), mo18 (13)19 (13)< .00123 (12)< .00118 (13)< .001
Child breastfed< .001.001< .001
 Yes8853 (60)3539 (64)837 (65)1265 (65)
 No5839 (40)1992 (36)452 (35)692 (35)
Child’s insurance.27.12.01
 Public14 047 (96)5317 (96)1222 (95)1903 (97)
 No insurance627 (4)217 (4)67 (5)59 (3)
Caregiver’s race and/or ethnicity.40< .001.01
 Hispanic4662 (32)1724 (31)445 (35)552 (28)
 African American7727 (53)2902 (53)572 (45)1070 (55)
 White1728 (12)684 (12)202 (16)216 (11)
 Other457 (3)190 (4)64 (5)105 (5)
Caregiver’s marital status.001.001< .001
 Married4842 (33)1956 (35)365 (28)397 (20)
 Not married9845 (67)3579 (65)929 (72)1567 (80)
Caregiver’s education< .001.001.001
 Some high school4034 (28)1399 (25)414 (32)597 (30)
 High school graduate6055 (41)2043 (37)474 (37)725 (37)
 College graduate4590 (31)2089 (38)403 (31)640 (33)
Caregiver’s age (mean ± SD), y26 (6)28 (6)< .00126 (6)< .00127 (6).04
Caregiver employed< .001< .001< .001
 Yes5929 (40)2452 (44)397 (31)538 (27)
 No8762 (60)3083 (56)897 (69)1426 (73)
SNAP< .001< .001< .001
 Yes9333 (64)3901 (71)958 (75)1625 (84)
 No5254 (36)1595 (29)327 (25)322 (17)
WIC.01< .001< .001
 Yes11 363 (78)4152 (76)893 (70)11 363 (78)
 No3248 (22)1344 (25)391 (31)3248 (22)
Current subsidized housing.48< .001.01
 Yes3193 (22)1188 (22)225 (18)487 (25)
 No11 203 (78)4284 (78)1043 (82)1462 (75)
LIHEAP< .001.01< .001
 Yes2608 (21)1394 (29)185 (18)280 (17)
 No9783 (79)3406 (71)862 (82)1381 (83)
TANF< .001< .001< .001
 Yes3381 (23)1416 (26)520 (40)1043 (53)
 No11 213 (77)4110 (74)768 (60)910 (47)
Eviction in past 5 y (start in 2011)< .001< .001< .001
 Yes274 (3)397 (10)134 (15)227 (14)
 No10 784 (98)3621 (90)792 (85)1347 (86)
Formal eviction.19.55.06
 Yes113 (54)187 (59)60 (57)113 (54)
 No98 (46)128 (41)45 (43)69 (37)
Low birth wt, < 2500 g.78.62.74
 Yes2076 (14)769 (14)175 (14)279 (15)
 No12 346 (86)4633 (86)1086 (86)1633 (85)
Child hospitalizations< .001< .001< .001
 Yes3883 (27)1679 (31)411 (32)608 (31)
 No10 711 (73)3831 (70)865 (68)1336 (69)
Child fair and/or poor health< .001< .001< .001
 Yes1415 (10)740 (13)180 (14)265 (13)
 No13 282 (90)4795 (87)1106 (86)1699 (87)
At risk for underweight.40.18.68
 Yes1990 (14)729 (14)160 (13)263 (14)
 No12 176 (86)4640 (86)1102 (87)1657 (86)
Developmental risk< .001< .001< .001
 Yes2108 (18)1072 (22)295 (24)473 (27)
 No9958 (83)3737 (78)959 (77)1293 (73)
Well child< .001< .001< .001
 Yes4769 (41)1715 (37)420 (35)566 (33)
 No6770 (59)2904 (63)784 (65)1128 (67)
Admission from the ED.53< .001< .001
 Yes1412 (14)576 (13)72 (7)123 (8)
 No8927 (86)3766 (87)896 (93)1461 (92)
Maternal health fair and/or poor< .001< .001< .001
 Yes2957 (21)1780 (33)448 (36)625 (33)
 No11 373 (79)3586 (67)805 (64)1301 (68)
Maternal depressive symptoms< .001< .001< .001
 Yes2344 (17)1888 (36)533 (43)839 (44)
 No11 651 (83)3375 (64)706 (57)1060 (56)
Household food insecurity< .001< .001< .001
 Yes2727 (19)2725 (49)663 (51)976 (50)
 No11 979 (81)2817 (51)631 (49)990 (50)
Child food insecurity< .001< .001< .001
 Yes1208 (8)1395 (25)357 (28)527 (27)
 No13 499 (92)4147 (75)937 (72)1439 (73)
Energy insecurity< .001< .0001< .001
 No12 224 (84)2926 (53)944 (74)1491 (76)
 Moderate1413 (10)1311 (24)121 (9)174 (9)
 Severe977 (7)1288 (23)217 (17)291 (15)
Household foregone care< .001< .001< .001
 Yes2041 (14)1836 (33)373 (29)515 (26)
 No12 633 (86)3686 (67)912 (71)1446 (74)
Child foregone care< .001< .001< .001
 Yes456 (3)524 (10)131 (10)193 (10)
 No14 211 (97)4996 (90)1154 (90)1769 (90)
Health cost sacrifices< .001< .001< .001
 Yes852 (6)1140 (21)184 (15)241 (13)
 No13 510 (94)4309 (79)1087 (86)1692 (87)
  • χ2 testing was used for categorical variables, and t test was used for continuous variables. Homeowners and those with private insurance are excluded from this analysis. LIHEAP, Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program; SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program; TANF, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.