TABLE 3

Number of Adverse Housing Conditions Compared With Stable Housing (N = 22 324)

Outcomes1 Adverse Housing Condition
(n = 6529)2 Adverse Housing Conditions
(n = 979)3 Adverse Housing Conditions
(n = 106)
aOR (CI)aOR (CI)aOR (CI)
Child health outcomes
 Lifetime hospitalizations1.14 (1.07–1.22)1.31 (1.14–1.52)1.27 (0.83–1.92)
 Child health fair and/or poor1.33 (1.21–1.47)1.68 (1.39–2.03)2.59 (1.62–4.16)
 At risk for being underweight0.95 (0.87–1.04)0.91 (0.75–1.11)0.73 (0.40–1.34)
 Developmental risk (PEDS 2 or more concerns)1.12 (1.01–1.24)1.26 (1.04–1.53)1.21 (0.71–2.07)
Caregiver health outcomes
 Caregiver health fair and/or poor1.69 (1.58–1.82)2.73 (2.37–3.14)4.24 (2.85–6.31)
 Depression screen2.50 (2.33–2.69)4.72 (4.08–5.44)7.45 (4.92–11.29)
Hardship outcomes
 Household food insecurity3.91 (3.65–4.19)7.98 (6.91–9.22)17.91 (11.25–28.52)
 Child food insecurity3.36 (3.08–3.68)5.82 (4.98–6.80)18.01 (12.04–26.95)
 Energy insecurity3.23 (3.01–3.47)2.78 (2.40–3.22)3.29 (2.20–4.93)
 Household forgone care2.69 (2.49–2.90)3.69 (3.17–4.30)5.63 (3.75–8.43)
 Child foregone care2.63 (2.30–3.00)3.83 (3.07–4.77)5.32 (3.18–8.91)
 Health cost sacrifices3.53 (3.19–3.90)4.82 (3.99–5.83)8.36 (5.35–13.07)
  • Analyses are adjusted for site, US-born mother versus immigrant, mother’s race and/or ethnicity, caregiver education, caregiver employment, marital status, breastfeeding history, mother’s age, child’s age (child’s age not in maternal health outcome models), and survey year. Private insurance and homeownership have been excluded from the analyses.