TABLE 2

Individual Adverse Housing Conditions Compared With Stable Housing

OutcomesBehind on RentMultiple MovesHomelessness
aOR (CI)aOR (CI)aOR (CI)
Child health outcomes
 Lifetime hospitalizations1.19 (1.10–1.27)1.11 (0.97–1.26)1.25 (1.12–1.41)
 Child health fair and/or poor1.41 (1.28–1.56)1.15 (1.19–1.68)1.59 (1.36–1.86)
 At risk for being underweight0.96 (0.87–1.06)0.86 (0.72–1.04)0.89 (0.77–1.04)
 Developmental risk (PEDS 2 or more concerns)1.08 (0.97–1.20)1.28 (1.08–1.53)1.26 (1.08–1.47)
Caregiver health outcomes
 Caregiver health fair and/or poor1.91 (1.77–2.05)2.23 (1.96–2.53)1.96 (1.75–2.20)
 Depression screen2.71 (2.51–2.93)3.67 (3.22–4.17)3.60 (3.21–4.04)
Hardship outcomes
 Household food insecurity4.93 (4.58–5.30)4.86 (4.28–5.51)4.43 (3.96–4.96)
 Child food insecurity4.14 (3.78–4.54)4.07 (3.51–4.72)4.12 (3.59–4.71)
 Energy insecurity4.28 (3.98–4.60)1.80 (1.56–2.08)1.27 (1.12–1.44)
 Household forgone care3.06 (2.83–3.31)2.73 (2.37–3.15)2.82 (2.48–3.21)
 Child foregone care3.08 (2.69–3.52)3.16 (2.55–3.92)2.63 (2.15–3.22)
Health cost sacrifices4.24 (3.83–4.70)3.11 (2.58–3.75)3.31 (2.76–3.96)
  • Analyses are adjusted for site, US-born mother versus immigrant, mother’s race and/or ethnicity, caregiver education, caregiver employment, marital status, breastfeeding history, mother’s age, child’s age (child’s age not in maternal health outcome models), and survey year. Private insurance and homeownership have been excluded from the analyses.