TABLE 1

Child and Parent Socioeconomic Characteristics, Obesity Risk Factors, and BMI z Scores by Child Race and/or Ethnicity: ECLS-B

CharacteristicOverallAfrican AmericanHispanicAsianAmerican IndianWhite
Distribution of race, %15.823.33.52.954.6
Boys, %51.353.651.853.250.450.3
Household income, $ (%)a
 <25 00033.556.751.317.750.119.8
 25 000–50 00029.725.732.525.231.629.8
 >50 00036.817.716.257.118.350.5
Parent education, %a
 Less than high school45.860.368.223.955.533.2
 Some college29.230.22319.936.731.8
 Less than college25.09.58.856.37.835.0
Food insecurity, %a11.816.917.76.515.18.1
Neighborhood safety, %a8.015.612.53.49.24.2
Maternal risk factors
 Wt, kg, mean (SE)a72.2 (0.44)78.76 (1.15)71.10 (0.85)60.46 (0.63)76.02 (2.2)71.30 (0.55)
 Smoking during pregnancy, %a9.16.74.40.719.413.0
Infant risk factors
 Never breastfed, %a29.246.623.816.328.427.3
 Early introduction of solid foods, %a23.729.821.27.528.623.9
 Wt gain, mean (SE)a,b0.57 (0.01)0.61 (0.01)0.59 (0.01)0.56 (0.01)0.64 (0.02)0.57 (0.01)
Early childhood risk factorsc
 Television viewing >2 h per d, %a35.650.644.829.441.627.5
 Physical inactivity, %a56.160.456.867.850.854.1
 SSB consumption, %a30.141.435.721.733.525.0
 Fruit and vegetable consumption <1 per d, %18.520.316.816.519.819.0
 Family meals <4 per wk (%)a16.124.620.216.916.811.9
 Nonparental child care, %a80.284.073.284.879.382.0
BMI z score, mean (SE)
 Boys
  2 y (2003–2004)a0.52 (0.05)0.58 (0.12)0.66 (0.11)0.28 (0.12)0.73 (0.25)0.44 (0.07)
  Preschool (2005–2006)a0.67 (0.03)0.65 (0.09)0.86 (0.07)0.44 (0.10)1.04 (0.15)0.59 (0.04)
  Kindergarten (2006)a0.69 (0.03)0.75 (0.07)0.93 (0.07)0.48 (0.11)0.93 (0.09)0.58 (0.04)
 Girls
  2 y (2003–2004)0.34 (0.06)0.30 (0.15)0.43 (0.16)0.30 (0.11)0.62 (0.15)0.30 (0.08)
  Preschool (2005–06)a0.66 (0.03)0.70 (0.07)0.79 (0.06)0.38 (0.09)1.00 (0.11)0.60 (0.04)
  Kindergarten (2006)a0.68 (0.03)0.76 (0.07)0.78 (0.06)0.34 (0.10)1.04 (0.11)0.61 (0.04)
Overweight and/or obesity, %
 Boys
  2 y (2003–2004)17.517.320.112.227.316.3
  Preschool (2005–2006)a33.637.239.924.547.029.7
  Kindergarten (2006)a34.841.043.729.442.829.0
 Girls
  2 y (2003–2004)16.716.417.014.022.216.5
  Preschool (2005–2006)a34.836.842.628.747.130.9
  Kindergarten (2006)a35.139.939.929.649.231.5
  • a P value for the difference across races is <.01.

  • b Nine-mo rate of infant wt gain (kg) is wt at 9 mo birth wt over age in mo at the first wave of data collection (∼9 mo).

  • c Measured at wave 3 of data collection.