TABLE 2

GA and Birth Weight Among Infants Exposed to ADHD Medication During Pregnancy Compared With Infants Whose Mothers Used ADHD Medication Before or After Pregnancy and With Infants Whose Mothers Never Used These Drugs

OutcomeADHD Medication During Pregnancy,aN = 1591ADHD Medication Before or After Pregnancy,bN = 9475No ADHD Medication, N = 953 668ADHD Medication During Pregnancy Versus ADHD Medication Before or After PregnancycADHD Medication During Pregnancy Versus No ADHD Medicationc
n (%)n (%)n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)Crude OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
GA, wk
 <3219 (1.2)121 (1.3)12 435 (1.3)1.0 (0.6–1.6)0.8 (0.5–1.3)0.9 (0.6–1.5)0.9 (0.6–1.5)
 32–36125 (7.9)561 (5.9)39 747 (4.2)1.4 (1.1–1.7)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.9 (1.6–2.3)1.3 (1.1–1.6)
 37–411365 (85.8)8283 (87.4)838 318 (87.9)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
 ≥4282 (5.2)510 (5.4)63 168 (6.6)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.8 (0.6–1.0*)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
Birth wtd
 SGA43 (2.7)222 (2.3)21 789 (2.3)1.2 (0.8–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.9 (0.6–1.2)
 AGA1470 (92.4)8831 (93.2)892 606 (93.6)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)1.0 (reference)
 LGA78 (4.9)422 (4.5)39 273 (4.1)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.2 (0.9–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.3 (1.0–1.7*)
  • AGA, appropriate for gestational age; LGA, large for gestational age; SGA, small for gestational age.

  • a Exposure to ADHD medication according to self-reported use in early pregnancy or any prescription during pregnancy or 1 mo before.

  • b Any ADHD medication dispensed from a pharmacy during the study period except during the interval 1 mo before pregnancy until delivery.

  • c The factors considered to be potential confounders were as follows: year of birth, maternal age, primiparity, BMI, maternal smoking, noncohabiting with father, mother born outside the Nordic countries, and maternal use of opioids, antiepileptics, psycholeptics, antidepressants, alimemazine, or promethazine during pregnancy. All were simultaneously entered into the introductory multiple logistic regression analyses. The final aORs were obtained from a restricted model after elimination of all variables with P ≥ .2. A detailed list of the factors included in the final models is available in Supplemental Table 4.

  • d Sex-specific birth wt z score; SGA = 2 SDs below mean, LGA = 2 SDs above mean.

  • * P < .05.