TABLE 3

Perinatal Morbidity Among Infants Exposed to ADHD Medication During Pregnancy Compared With Infants Whose Mothers Used ADHD Medication Before or After Pregnancy and With Infants Whose Mothers Never Used These Drugs

OutcomeADHD Medication During Pregnancy,aN = 1591ADHD Medication Before or After Pregnancy,bN = 9475No ADHD Medication, N = 953 668ADHD Medication During Pregnancy Versus ADHD Medication Before or After PregnancycADHD Medication During Pregnancy Versus No ADHD Medicationc
n (%)n (%)n (%)Crude OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)Crude OR (95% CI)aOR (95% CI)
Apgar score <7 at 5 min38 (2.4)177 (1.9)12 592 (1.3)1.3 (0.9–1.8)1.0 (0.7–1.5)1.8 (1.3–2.5)1.2 (0.8–1.6)
Birth defects (weeded)d48 (3.0)205 (2.2)20 736 (2.2)1.4 (1.0–1.9*)1.3 (0.9–1.8)1.4 (1.0–1.9*)1.2 (0.9–1.6)
Perinatal death8 (0.5)38 (0.4)4268 (0.4)1.3 (0.6–2.7)1.1 (0.5–2.5)1.1 (0.6–2.3)0.9 (0.4–1.8)
NICU admission259 (16.3)1105 (11.7)79 530 (8.3)1.5 (1.3–1.7)1.2 (1.1–1.4)2.1 (1.9–2.4)1.5 (1.3–1.7)
Any respiratory disorder92 (5.8)511 (5.4)35 479 (3.7)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.0 (0.8–1.2)1.6 (1.3–2.0)1.0 (0.8–1.2)
 Transient tachypnea or other respiratory disease70 (4.4)346 (3.7)25 198 (2.6)1.2 (0.9–1.6)1.0 (0.8–1.4)1.7 (1.3–2.2)1.1 (0.9–1.4)
 PPHN7 (0.4)49 (0.5)3065 (0.3)0.9 (0.4–1.9)0.8 (0.4–1.8)1.4 (0.7–2.9)0.9 (0.4–2.8)
 RDS13 (0.8)82 (0.9)5101 (0.5)0.9 (0.5–1.7)1.0 (0.6–2.0)1.5 (0.9–2.7)1.0 (0.6–1.8)
 CPAP60 (3.8)332 (3.5)22 287 (2.3)1.1 (0.8–1.4)0.9 (0.7–1.3)1.6 (1.3–2.1)1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 Ventilator treatment15 (0.9)90 (0.9)5257 (0.6)1.0 (0.6–1.7)1.0 (0.6–1.7)1.7 (1.0–2.9)1.2 (0.7–2.1)
Hyperbilirubinemia91 (5.7)511 (5.4)42 948 (4.5)1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.0 (0.8–1.3)1.3 (1.0–1.6)1.1 (0.9–1.4)
Hypoglycemia66 (4.1)326 (3.4)23 965 (2.5)1.2 (0.9–1.6)1.0 (0.7–1.3)1.7 (1.3–2.2)1.2 (0.9–1.5)
Feeding difficulties34 (2.1)130 (1.4)9837 (1.0)1.6 (1.1–2.3)1.1 (0.8–1.7)2.1 (1.5–2.9)1.3 (0.9–1.8)
CNS-related disorders16 (1.0)40 (0.4)2885 (0.3)2.4 (1.3–4.3)1.8 (1.0–3.3*)3.4 (2.0–5.5)1.9 (1.1–3.1)
Withdrawal symptoms from therapeutic drugs7 (0.4)10 (0.1)124 (0.0)4.2 (1.6–11.0)34.0 (15.8–72.9)2.1 (0.9–4.7)
  • —, not analyzed because of low number of infants.

  • a Exposure to ADHD medication according to self-reported use in early pregnancy or any prescription during pregnancy or 1 mo before.

  • b Any ADHD medication dispensed from a pharmacy during the study period except during the interval 1 mo before pregnancy until delivery.

  • c The factors considered to be potential confounders were as follows: year of birth, maternal age, primiparity, BMI, maternal smoking, noncohabiting with father, mother born outside the Nordic countries, and maternal use of opioids, antiepileptics, psycholeptics, antidepressants, alimemazine, or promethazine during pregnancy. All were simultaneously entered into the introductory multiple logistic regression analyses. The final aORs were obtained from a restricted model after elimination of all variables with P ≥ .2. A detailed list of the factors included in the final models is available in Supplemental Table 5.

  • d ICD-10 diagnoses beginning with Q, excluding the following minor conditions: preauricular appendix, patent ductus arteriosus in a preterm infant, single umbilical artery, tongue tie, undescended testicle, hip dislocation or subluxation, and nevus.

  • * P < .05.