TABLE 1

Background Characteristics of the Study Population

CharacteristicADHD Medication During Pregancy,aN = 1591ADHD Medication Before or After but Not During Pregnancy,bN = 9475No ADHD Medication, N = 953 668ADHD Medication During Pregnancy Versus No ADHD Medicationc
%%%OR (95% CI)
Year of child birth
 2006–201022.860.554.70.2 (0.2–0.3)
 2011–201477.239.545.34.1 (3.6–4.6)
Maternal age, y
 <20 12.37.82.06.9 (5.9–8.0)
 35+ 14.213.621.70.6 (0.5–0.7)
Parity
 Primipara60.853.251.41.5 (1.3–1.6)
 Multipara39.246.848.10.7 (0.6–0.8)
BMI
 BMI <18.52.22.52.21.1 (0.8–1.5)
 BMI >3017.616.211.41.7 (1.5–1.9)
 Missing information7.29.27.9
Maternal smoking
 Yes33.526.45.98.0 (7.2–8.9)
 Missing information4.14.64.6
Maternal country of birth
 Sweden93.191.875.24.5 (3.7–5.4)
 Other Nordic1.41.42.20.6 (0.4–0.9)
 Non-Nordic5.26.621.00.2 (0.2–0.3)
Not living with father of child31.220.16.07.1 (6.4-7.5)
Maternal disease
 Diabetes0.91.00.61.7 (1.0*–2.8)
 Gestational diabetes1.31.01.11.1 (0.7–1.7)
 Hypothyroidism2.82.11.81.5 (1.1–2.1)
 Essential hypertension0.40.40.40.9 (0.4–2.1)
 Severe preeclampsia1.10.90.91.2 (0.8–2.0)
 Crohn’s disease0.10.30.30.5 (0.1–1.8)
Cesarean delivery22.520.416.61.5 (1.3–1.6)
Use of other neurotropic drugs
 Opioids (N02A)15.012.14.43.8 (3.3–4.4)
 Antiepileptics (N03A)d9.73.20.523.5 (18.9–27.9)
 Psycholeptics (N05)34.915.12.322.4 (20.2–24.9)
 Antidepressants (N06A)31.820.03.313.8 (12.4–15.3)
 Alimemazine (R06AD01)4.11.30.156.6 (43.7–73.3)
 Promethazine (R06AD02, R06AD52)28.118.67.74.7 (4.2–5.2)
  • a Exposure information acquired from self-reported use in early pregnancy or any prescription during pregnancy or 1 mo before.

  • b Any prescription during the study period except during the interval 1 mo before pregnancy until delivery.

  • c Reference = total population minus analyzed variable.

  • d Pregabalin, a substance classified as an antiepileptic but mainly used for other indications like anxiety and neuropathic pain, has previously been shown to be prescribed frequently to women with ADHD medication.31

  • * P < .05.