TABLE 2

Unadjusted and Adjusted Estimates of Health Care Use by Level of Justice Involvement, United States, 2009 to 2014

Not Justice-Involved Within Last 12 moArrest Within Last 12 moProbation or Parole Within Last 12 moJuvenile Detention Within Past 12 mo
ED visit in last 12 mo (%)Ref
 Unadjusted30.7 (30.3–31.2)45.5 (41.7–49.3)**46.5 (43.3–49.7)**51.1 (47.0–55.1)**,a
 Adjustedb31.0 (30.6–31.5)38.5 (34.7–42.2)**38.8 (35.7–41.9)**39.5 (35.2–43.7)**
ED visits per 100 person-years (n)Ref
 Unadjusted61.7 (60.5–62.9)97.2 (84.1–110.3)**114.2 (98.5–129.9)**139.8 (111.7–167.9)**,a
 Adjustedb62.8 (61.5–64.1)77.7 (66.6–88.8)*84.1 (69.9–98.2)*92.9 (72.0–113.7)*
Hospitalization in last 12 mo (%)Ref
 Unadjusted4.7 (4.5–4.8)10.6 (8.4–12.8)**11.8 (9.9–13.8)**15.8 (13.1–18.5)**,a,c
 Adjustedb4.8 (4.6–5.0)7.2 (5.4–8.9)*7.1 (5.8–8.4)**8.8 (6.9–10.7)**
Hospital nights per 100 person-years (n)Ref
 Unadjusted15.6 (14.6–16.5)54.8 (32.1–77.6)**60.0 (43.6–76.3)**90.3 (68.4–112.3)**,a,c
 Adjustedb18.0 (16.6–19.5)43.3 (18.6–67.9)*44.9 (26.8–63.0)**53.7 (34.1–73.2)**
  • Ref, reference group.

  • a Significantly different from individuals with arrest in past 12 mo (P < .05).

  • b Adjusted for sex, age, race, school enrollment, income, receipt of public assistance, type of health insurance, self-reported health, mother in household, father in household, illicit drug abuse or dependence, marijuana abuse or dependence, alcohol abuse or dependence, nicotine dependence, communicable disease, asthma, and survey wave.

  • c Significantly different from individuals with probation or parole in past 12 mo (P < .05).

  • * P < .01; ** P < .001.