TABLE 1

Baseline Characteristics of Mothers and Their Uninfected Children According to HIV Exposure in the Tshipidi Study, Botswana, 2010–2012

CharacteristicOverall (N = 724), N (%)HIV-Infected Mothers/HIV-Exposed Children (N = 337), N (%)HIV-Uninfected Mothers/HIV-Unexposed Children (N = 387), N (%)P2 or t test)
Breastfed415 (57.3%)30 (8.9%)385 (99.5%)<.01
Female367 (50.7%)168 (49.9%)199 (51.4%).67
Preterm (<37 wk)89 (12.8%)46 (13.9%)43 (11.7%).37
Low birth weight92 (12.8%)58 (17.2%)34 (8.9%)<.01
3-drug ART122 (16.9%)122 (36.2%)
 CBV + NVP68 (9.4%)68 (20.2%)
 NVP + TRV11 (1.5%)11 (3.3%)
 ATR10 (1.4%)10 (3.0%)
 ALU + CBV9 (1.2%)9 (2.7%)
Other24 (3.3%)24 (7.1%)
ZDV monotherapy214 (29.6%)214 (63.5%)
No ARVs1 (0.1%)1 (0.3%)
Mean CD4 cells/mm3 (SD)449 (190)
Mean log viral copies/mL (SD)4.2 (2.6)
Site of enrollment<.01
 Gaborone369 (51.0%)203 (60.2%)166 (42.9%)
 Mochudi355 (49.0%)134 (39.8%)221 (57.1%)
Mean maternal age (SD)27.2 (6.1)28.9 (5.8)25.7 (6.0)<.01
Education
 None10 (1.4%)7 (2.1%)3 (0.8%)<.01
 Primary60 (8.3%)43 (12.8%)17 (4.4%)
 Secondary junior362 (50.1%)204 (60.7%)158 (40.9%)
 >Secondary junior290 (40.2%)82 (24.4%)208 (53.9%)
Maternal income
 None466 (64.5%)187 (55.8%)279 (72.1%)<.01
 <P50037 (5.1%)26 (7.8%)11 (2.8%)
 P501–P100096 (13.3%)65 (19.4%)31 (8.0%)
 >P1000123 (17.0%)57 (17.0%)66 (17.1%)
Access to sanitation
 Indoor155 (21.6%)57 (17.0%)98 (25.6%)<.01
 Private481 (66.9%)229 (68.2%)252 (65.8%)
 Shared83 (11.5%)50 (14.8%)33 (8.6%)
Electricity in home412 (57.0%)164 (48.8%)248 (64.1%)<.01
Access to water
 Home143 (19.8%)55 (16.4%)88 (22.7%)<.01
 Yard495 (68.5%)226 (67.3%)269 (69.5%)
 Communal74 (10.2%)48 (14.3%)26 (6.7%)
 Other11 (1.5%)7 (2.1%)4 (2.1%)
Main cooking method
 Gas, electric525 (72.6%)240 (71.4%)285 (73.6%).12
 Wood181 (25.0%)84 (25.0%)97 (25.1%)
 Kerosene8 (1.1%)7 (2.1%)1 (0.3%)
 None9 (1.2%)5 (1.5%)4 (1.0%)
Housing type
 Formal715 (98.9%)331 (98.5%)384 (99.2%).61
 Informal6 (0.8%)4 (1.2%)2 (0.5%)
 None2 (0.3%)1 (0.3%)1 (0.3%)
Food insecurity mean (SD)2.5 (1.1)2.1 (1.1)
 None252 (34.9%)95 (28.2%)157 (40.7%)<.01
 Mild164 (22.7%)63 (18.7%)101 (26.2%)
 Moderate176 (24.3%)97 (28.8%)79 (20.5%)
 Severe131 (18.1%)82 (24.3%)49 (12.7%)
Depression mean score (0–20) (SD)a2.5 (2.7)2.8 (2.8)2.1 (2.6)<.01
Social support mean score (0–40) (SD)b33.9 (6.0)34.4 (6.0)33.5 (6.0).05
Alcohol use (ever)46 (6.4%)24 (7.1%)22 (5.7%)<.01
Tobacco use (ever)10 (1.4%)5 (1.5%)5 (1.3%).25
  • Percentage of participants missing values for variables: preterm: 3.6%, low birth weight: 0.7%, maternal education: 0.1%, maternal income: 0.3%, sanitation: 0.7%, electricity in home: 0.1%, source of water: 0.1%, cooking method: 0.1%, housing: 0.1%, food insecurity22: 0.1%, depression: 0%, social support: 5.5%, alcohol use (ever): 55.6%, tobacco use (ever): 58.8%. ATR, Atripla, ALU, Aluvia; CBV, Combivir; P, pula; TRV, Truvada; —, not applicable.

  • a Highest score for a given mother on the Beck Depression Score,23 from antepartum and postpartum assessments (high scores indicating worse depression).

  • b Highest score for a given mother’s assessment of her social support24 (high scores indicating better social support).