TABLE 3

Adjusted Mean Differences in Bayley-III Scores According to Significant Predictors in the Tshipidi Study, Botswana, 2010–2012

CovariateBayley-III Neurodevelopment Domain Estimates
Cognitive Estimate (SE) PGross Motor Estimate (SE)PFine Motor Estimate (SE)PExpressive Language Estimate (SE)PReceptive Language Estimate (SE)P
In-utero exposure to HIV0.59 (0.26).03−0.58 (0.35).09
Maternal factors
 Older age0.14 (0.11).20
 Depression0.09 (0.05).07
Socioeconomic factors
 Higher education0.18 (0.11).100.77 (0.26)<.01
 Higher income0.33 (0.11)<.01
 Less access to water−0.30 (0.10)<.01
 Food insecurity−0.18 (0.10).06
 Less access to sanitation−0.28 (0.13).02
 Lower quality housing−0.89 (0.48).06
 Access to electricity0.58 (0.34).09
Preterm (<37 wk)a−0.64 (0.41).12−0.91 (0.33)<.01−0.37 (0.22).09−0.06 (0.52).90−0.82 (0.42).05
Low birth weighta−1.24 (0.39)<.01−1.19 (0.33)<.01−0.31 (0.21).15−0.94 (0.50).06−0.63 (0.40).12
  • a Bivariate associations for these covariates are shown in models fitted with the main exposure of interest (in-utero exposure to HIV). —, not applicable.