TABLE 4

Adjusted Mean Differences in DMC Neurodevelopment Scores According to Significant Predictors in the Tshipidi Study, Botswana, 2010–2012

CovariateDMC Neurodevelopment Domains Estimates
Locomotor Estimate (SE)PFine Motor Estimate (SE)PLanguage Estimate (SE)PPersonal-Social Estimate (SE)P
In-utero exposure to HIV0.74 (0.32).02
Maternal
 Income0.12 (0.06).04
 Depression−0.08 (0.03)<.01−0.06 (0.04).10−0.11 (0.06).08
 Education0.46 (0.12)<.010.35 (0.15).02
 Social score0.02 (0.01).06
Household
 Cooking method (gas or electric vs wood burning)0.69 (0.37).06
 Cooking method (kerosene vs wood burning)−2.76 (1.55).08
 Cooking method (none vs wood-burning)1.01 (1.44).48
Preterm (<37 wk)a−0.50 (0.21).02−0.41 (0.24).09−0.28 (0.31).35−0.63 (0.49).19
Low birth weighta−0.40 (0.21).05−0.05 (0.24).84−0.39 (0.30).19−0.13 (0.48).78
  • a Bivariate associations for these covariates are shown in models fitted with the main exposure of interest (in-utero exposure to HIV) in the Tshipidi study, Botswana, 2010–2012. —, not applicable.