TABLE 1

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of the Medicaid-Insured Children With at Least 1 ED Visit in 2012

Characteristics, n (%)All ED UsersED Use in 2012a
N = 470 4491–3 Visits≥4 Visits
n = 430 504 (92%)n = 39 945 (8%)
Age group, y
 <2 57 960 (12.3)47 970 (11.1)9990 (25.0)
 2–5 159 916 (34.0)145 251 (33.7)14 665 (36.7)
 6–11151 228 (32.1)142 956 (33.2)8272 (20.7)
 12–16 101 345 (21.5)94 327 (21.9)7018 (17.6)
Male sex248 427 (52.8)227 532 (52.9)20 895 (52.3)
Race and/or ethnicity
 White214 323 (45.6)195 582 (45.4)18 741 (46.9)
 African American173 782 (36.9)159 482 (37.0)14 300 (35.8)
 Hispanic32 867 (7.0)30 701 (7.1)2166 (5.4)
 Other49 477 (10.5)44 739 (10.4)4738 (11.9)
Insurance type
 Fee-for-service67 287 (14.3)60 809 (14.1)6478 (16.2)
 Managed care403 162 (85.7)369 695 (85.9)33 467 (83.8)
Basis of eligibility: disability27 010 (5.7)23 714 (5.5)3296 (8.3)
No. of chronic conditions
 None161 780 (34.4)152 008 (35.3)9772 (24.5)
 1125 201 (26.6)115 459 (26.8)9742 (24.4)
 277 893 (16.6)70 654 (16.4)7239 (18.1)
 ≥3105 575 (22.4)92 383 (21.5)13 192 (33.0)
CCCs
 Any43 412 (9.2)36 802 (8.5)6610 (16.5)
 Cardiology9064 (1.9)7535 (1.8)1529 (3.8)
 Congenital or genetic8771 (1.9)7521 (1.7)1250 (3.1)
 Gastrointestinal3750 (0.8)2919 (0.7)831 (2.1)
 Hematology and immunology4639 (1.0)3880 (0.9)759 (1.9)
 Malignancy3303 (0.7)2908 (0.7)395 (1.0)
 Metabolic10 531 (2.2)8618 (2.0)1913 (4.8)
 Neonatal2011 (0.4)1503 (0.3)508 (1.3)
 Neurology10 364 (2.2)8871 (2.1)1493 (3.7)
 Renal2347 (0.5)1939 (0.5)408 (1.0)
 Respiratory2594 (0.6)2053 (0.5)541 (1.4)
 Technology dependence4553 (1.0)3597 (0.8)956 (2.4)
 Transplantation374 (0.1)324 (0.1)50 (0.1)
  • a All comparisons of the “1–3 visits” and “≥4 visits” groups were significant at P < .001 using bivariate statistics.