TABLE 2

Characteristics of the Sample

HA at 5 ya: Screened N = 174HA at 5 y: Non-screened N = 47Difference PbCI at 5 y: aScreened N = 84CI at 5 y: Nonscreened N = 20Difference P
ChildAge at HA fitting in months, mean (SD)9.1 (8.9)19.1 (10.7)<.0014.0 (4.2)12.9 (6.3)<.001
Age at HA fitting in months, median (IQR)c5.1 (2.6–12.2)21.3 (9.2–28.6)2.5 (1.8 – 4.1)12.8 (7.4 –18.2)
Fitted with HAs before 6 mo of age, n (%)d97 (55.7%)9 (19.1%)<.00170 (83.3%)3 (15.0%)<.001
Age at activation of first CI in months, median (IQR)13.04 (9.7 –19.2)20.9 (16.3 –26.1)
Fitted with CI before 12 mo of age, n (%)37 (44.0%)2 (10.0%).01
Male sex, n (%)97 (55.7%)30 (63.8%).4141 (46.5%)5 (25.0%).09
Birth weight (g), mean (SD)2967.7 (1022.2)3144.2 (843.4).673184.8 (883.5)2923.4 (941.1).18
Degree of hearing loss depicted by BE4FA hearing thresholds in dB HL, mean (SD)49.1 (14.8)47.0 (15.9).42101.9 (14.5)97.0 (16.9).29
 Mild (BE4FA ≤ 40 dB HL), n (%)47 (27.0%)13 (27.7%)
 Moderate (BE4FA: 41–60 dBHL), n (%)88 (50.6%)26 (55.3%)
 Severe (BE4FA: 61–80 dB HL), n (%)36 (20.7%)7 (14.9%)7 (8.6%)3 (20%)
 Profound (BE4FA: >80 dB HL), n (%)3 (1.7%)1 (2.1%)74 (91.4%)12 (80%)
Presence of any additional disabilities, n (%)49 (31.3%)21 (47.7%).0623 (31.9%)2 (11.1%).14
 Cerebral palsy 10 (6.3%)3 (6.7%)5 (6.7%)2 (11.1%)
 Autism spectrum disorder6 (2.8%)1 (2.3%)4 (5.4%)0 (0.0%)
 Vision impairment30 (13.9%)8 (17.8%)4 (5.4%)0 (0.0%)
 Cranio-facial abnormalities9 (5.7%)0 (0.0%)1 (1.3%)0 (0.0%)
 Genetic17 (10.6%)4 (8.9%)5 (6.8%)0 (0.0%)
 Other20 (12.6%)12 (26.7%)10 (13.5%)0 (0.0%)
Nonverbal cognitive ability, mean (SD)95.7 (25.4)96.3 (24.5).8192.5 (26.4)92.1 (24.0).74
Oral communication during educational intervention, n (%)79 (83.2%)19 (76.0%).5944 (83.0%)5 (62.5%).38
FamilyLanguage other than English household, n (%)33 (21.4%)6 (14.6%).4614 (20.6%)3 (20.0%).99
SESe, mean (SD)1018.8 (74.5)1023.9 (74.8).681015.6 (73.5)1010.5 (78.0).83
Maternal education: ≤12 y schooling, n (%)59 (34.7%)19 (43.2%).3924 (29.6%)8 (42.1%).44
Maternal education: vocational training certificate, n (%)43 (25.3%)10 (22.7%).8818 (22.2%)5 (26.3%).94
Maternal education: university degree, n (%)68 (40.0%)15 (34.1%).5939 (48.1%)6 (31.6%).29
  • IQR, interquartile range; —, not applicable.

  • a Accessed UNHS. Information about screening status was missing for 25 of the 350 children.

  • b P value for the test of whether the distributions in the screened and nonscreened groups are the same using Mann–Whitney U tests for the continuous variables and tests of proportions for the discrete variables.

  • c Median age at HA fitting of the entire screened group comprising users of HA and CI was 3.9 mo (IQR: 2.3–10.1), and the median age at fitting of the entire nonscreened group was 17.3 mo (IQR: 7.5–25.9).

  • d All percentages are relative to the number of nonmissing values.

  • e SES represented by the Index of Relative Social Advantage and Disadvantage, which has a mean of 1000 and an SD of 100. The study cohort has a range of 300–1250.