Percent Difference Child TL at Age 9 Associated With Types of Father Loss (N = 2420)

Type of Father LossM1M2aM3M4
Any−14* (.006)
Separation and/or divorce−6* (.03)
Incarceration−10* (.01)
Death−16** (.008)
  • All analyses were controlled for race/ethnicity; mother’s age and education at baseline; household income at baseline; child’s sex, birth weight, and birth order; report of whether parents discussed an abortion; parental report of how their relationship was going before the child’s birth; parental history of depression at baseline; parental history of an alcohol problem at baseline; parental incarceration history; if there was any domestic violence during the pregnancy; mother’s self-report of health; and if the mother lived with her parents at age 15.

  • a A separate analysis comparing those children who experienced a divorce or separation with those who were born in a 2-parent household but stayed together found a slightly higher reduction of 7%.

  • * P < .05.

  • ** P < .01, 2-tailed (P values in parentheses).