TABLE 2

Characteristics and Outcomes of the Newborns and Their Mothers

Characteristics of the NewbornsBaseline (N = 55)Postimplementation (N = 44)P
 Girl, no. (%)31 (56)25 (56).96
 Race, no. (%).19
  White45 (85)42 (95)
  African American2 (4)0 (0)
  Hispanic6 (11)2 (5)
 Birth weight, kga3.1 ± 0.63.1 ± 0.6.72
 Apgar score at 5 mina8.7 ± 0.88.8 ± 0.8.92
 Head circumference, cma33.1 ± 1.832.8 ± 1.4.44
Characteristics of the mothers
 Polypharmacy, no. (%)b18 (33)16 (36).70
 Cesarean delivery, no. (%)24 (44)13 (30).15
 Cigarette smoking, no. (%)30 (58)26 (59).53
 Alcohol, no. (%)1 (2)0 (0).36
 Public insurance, no. (%)48 (96)42 (95).90
 Mother’s age, ya27.5 ± 5.829.1 ± 5.1.16
 Gestational age, wka38.9 ± 1.638.4 ± 1.4.09
 Methadone dose, mg/da85.6 ± 34.394.5 ± 37.8.23
 Gravidaa3.2 ± 1.83.2 ± 1.9.94
Outcomes
 Hospital length of stay, da22.4 ± 10.85.9 ± 1.9<.001
 Treated with morphine, no. (%)54 (98)6 (14)<.001
 Cost, US dollarsa,c44 824 ± 23 72610 289 ± 5068<.001
 Breast-milk fed at discharge, no. (%)11 (20)20 (45).01
 NICU stay, no. (%)d55 (100)9 (20)<.001
  • In the baseline period, data were unavailable for 5 patients for insurance, 3 patients for cigarette smoking, and 2 patients for ethnicity.

  • a Mean ± SD.

  • b Methadone use in addition to mother’s use of cocaine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, or opioids other than methadone (determined either via history and/or urine testing of mother).

  • c Adjusted for inflation.

  • d Patients with any time spent in the NICU.