TABLE 2

Overview of Studies (k = 19)

CharacteristicΩ-3 Fatty AcidsDigestive EnzymesOther SupplementsGFCF DietsOther Dietary InterventionTotal
Treatment duration
 <1–4 wk000033
 5–8 wk101013
 9–12 wk122207
 ≥13 wka201216
Primary outcomes addressed
 Attention/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms200013
 Adaptive behavior100102
 ASD symptom severity3143213
 Challenging behaviors302139
 Communication211228
 Medical symptoms (eg, sleep, gastrointestinal)021036
 Neurocognitive skills000101
 Social skills201115
 Harms4241112
Region of study conduct
 Asia or Africa011024
 Australia010001
 Europe100214
 North America3032210
Risk of bias
 Low101024
 Moderate3222110
 High001225
Total N participants16713513682212732
  • a Two studies were >52 weeks’ duration.44,45,54,55