TABLE 1

Characteristics of Studies Included in Meta-Analyses

SourceaSample (% Female)Age, ybQuality ScoreMonitoring TypeCovariatescOutcome Measure
Sexual intercourse
 Bersamin et al (2008)d,e887 (48)1512KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicity, family incomeVaginal intercourse: yes/no
 Borawski et al (2003)e692 (51.2)1611RulesAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicity, neighborhood SESSexual activity, past 4 mo: yes/no
 Bouris (2009)e10 575 (47.1)1612KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicity, family structure (single- or 2-parent)Ever had sex: yes/no
 Capaldi et al (1996)d,e206 (0)1510RulesParent: parental/family structure transitions, parent SES, parental antisocial behavior
Adolescent: deviant peer associationEver had sex: yes/no
 Chewning et al (2001)476 (49)158KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, grade, school attended, family structure (single- or 2-parent)Ever had sex, last 3 mo: yes/no
 Dancy et al (2010)d,e396 (100)1211KnowledgeAdolescent: grade level, grade earned
Mother: age, education, employment status, monthly income, receipt of welfare assistance, marital status, number of childrenHave you ever had vaginal, anal, or oral sex: yes/no
 Hope et al (2005)e709 (52)1711KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, race, family poverty statusEver had sex: yes/no
 Kapungu et al (2006)d,e274 (57)1310RulesAdolescent: age, gender, HIV knowledgeInitiating sex: yes/no
 Longmore et al (2001)d752 (54.2)1513RulesAdolescent: race or ethnicity, poverty level estimate; maternal educationEver had sexual intercourse: yes/no
 Longmore et al (2009)d697 (53.7)1514KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, race or ethnicityEver had sexual intercourse: yes/no
 Manlove et al (2012)4588 (49.8)1312KnowledgeAdolescent: age, race or ethnicity, born outside of the US, substance abuse in last year, behavior problems index, puberty status, number of dates in last year
Parent: education, religious attendanceFirst heterosexual sex: yes/no
 Miller et al (1986)2329 (63)167RulesNone reportedFull sexual relations: yes/no
 Morales-Campos et al (2012)655 (60)1312KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, family structure (single or 2-parent), acculturation level, parent or guardian educationEver had vaginal sex: yes/no
 Parkes et al (2011)e1854 (50.1)1610RulesAdolescent: age, gender, family structure (single- or 2-parent), academic ability, paternal educationEver had penetrative sex: yes/no
 Rai et al (2003)e1383 (52.3)1510KnowledgeAdolescent: age, genderEver had sex: yes/no
 Roche et al (2005)d,e2559 (54.6)1511RulesAdolescent: gender, race or ethnicity, family income, family structure (single- or 2-parent), pubertal development, deviant peer affiliationHad sex since time 1: yes/no
 Romer et al (1999)355 (51.3)1310KnowledgeAdolescent: age, sex; parent interaction (frequency of monitoring), type of guardianHad sex, made love: yes/no
 Rose et al (2005)408 (54)1010KnowledgeAdolescent: gender
Parent: marital status, education, employment outside homeEver had sex: yes/no
 Sieverding et al (2005)d307 (42.3)1610KnowledgeAdolescent: age, sexHad sex, last 6 mo: yes/no
 Sneed et al (2009)106 (0)148KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicityPenis in your vagina: yes/no
 Vélez-Pastrana et al (2005)425 (63.5)147KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, grade, academic achievement (grades)
Parent: education, marital status, religious affiliationEver had sex: yes/no
 Whitbeck et al (1999)d457 (54.3)139KnowledgeAdolescent: gender, grade, pubertal development, and family structure (single- or 2-parent)Had sex, past year: yes/no
 Wight et al (2006)d,e5041 (53.5)169RulesAdolescent: ethnicity, religiosity, family structure (single- or 2-parent), presence of friends at school and friends who smoke, sibling relations
Parents: age, education, social class (nonmanual or manual), housing type (rented or owner)Ever had sex: yes/no
 Yang et al (2007)d801 (57.7)1412KnowledgeAdolescent: age, school performance, peer risk involvement, lifetime risk behaviorVaginal sex: yes/no
Condom use
 Borawski et al (2003)e243 (54.1)1610RulesAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicity, neighborhood SESConsistent condom use, past 4 mo: every time/inconsistent
 Bouris (2009)e1999 (n/a)1612KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicity, family structure (single- or 2-parent)Consistent condom use, past 12 mo: 5-point scale, none to every time
 DiClemente et al (2001)522 (100)169KnowledgeAdolescent: religiosity, family structure (single- or 2-parent)
Parent: employment statusCondom use at last sex: yes/no
 Miller et al (1999)e907 (57)159KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, ethnicity, city of residenceConsistent condom use, lifetime: 5-point scale, never to always
 Parkes et al (2011)e592 (54.6)1610RulesAdolescent: age, gender, family structure (single- or 2-parent), academic ability, paternal educationConsistent condom use, lifetime: 5-point scale, never to always
 Rai et al (2003)e626 (44)1510KnowledgeAdolescent: age, genderCondom use at last sex: yes/no
 Romer et al (1999)161 (32.2)139KnowledgeAdolescent: age, sex; parent interaction (frequency of monitoring), type of guardianEver use a condom during sex: yes/no
 Stanton et al (2002)d,e383 (44)169KnowledgeAdolescent: age, genderCondom use at last sex: Yes/No
 Wight et al (2006)d,e1343 (53.5)169RulesAdolescent: ethnicity, religiosity, family structure (single- or 2-parent), friends at school, friends who smoke, sibling relations
Parents: age, education, social class (nonmanual or manual), housing type (rented or owner)Consistent condom use: every time/inconsistent
Contraceptive use
 Baker et al (1999)174 (100)159KnowledgeAdolescent: age, race
Mother: education, age of first deliveryConsistent contraceptive use: yes/no
 Chewning et al (2001)140 (37.1)158KnowledgeAdolescent: age, gender, grade, school attended, family structure (single- or 2-parent)Consistent birth control use, past 3 mo: less than most/always or most of the time
 Commendador (2011)112 (100)169RulesAdolescent: grade, ethnicity, ethnic identification, living situation
Parent: educationConsistent contraceptive use: 5-point scale, none to always
 DiClemente et al (2001)522 (100)169KnowledgeAdolescent: religiosity, family structure (single- or 2-parent)
Parent: employment statusContraceptive use, last 5 sex episodes: none/use
 Watson (2007)e1595 (52.6)1512RulesAdolescent: motivation for sex, sex education, risk behaviors, perceived risk of becoming pregnant or contracting AIDSContraceptive use, first sex: yes/no
 Wight et al (2006)d,e1343 (53.5)169RulesAdolescent: ethnicity, religiosity, family structure (single- or 2-parent), friends at school, friends who smoke, sibling relations
Parents: age, education, social class (nonmanual or manual), housing type (rented or owner)Consistent contraceptive use: every time/inconsistent
  • SES, socioeconomic status.

  • a All studies are cross-sectional unless otherwise noted.

  • b Average age measured in years.

  • c Reported covariates were those noted by authors in the cited articles.

  • d Longitudinal study design.

  • e High-quality study (quality score ≥9).