TABLE 3

Main Results and Characteristics of Studies Reporting Outcomes at 3 to 18 Years

Study, YearPatient PopulationOutcomes Analyzed and Timing of Follow-upMain Result(s)
Beaino, 201019All births between 22 and 32 wk GA in 9 regions of France in 1997 who survived to discharge and completed follow-up at 5 y age (n = 1812)Outcome: CP. Method/tool: standardized questionnaire with expert review of questionnaires with abnormal neurologic examination. Timing: 5 y.Adjusted ORs (CIs) for CP with no IVH as reference: grade I 1.78 (0.94–3.40); grade II 2.53 (1.30–4.93); grade III 3.25 (2.02–5.22); grade IV 29.66 (16.71–52.62).
Doyle, 200032Inborn live births at single site (Royal Women’s Hospital, Melbourne) with BW 500–1499 g over 2 eras (18 mo from October 1980, n = 222; 12 mo from January 1992, n = 202)Outcome: CP. Method/tool: Assessment by developmental pediatrician. Timing: 5 y.Percentages of survivors with CP within each grade of IVH; none 4.1%; grade I 12.5%; grade II 15.8%; grade III 31.2%; grade IV 20%.
Hoekstra, 200441Infants born at GA 23–26 wk between January 1986 and December 2000 who survived (n = 675)Outcome: normal, mild-moderate impairment or severe impairment in neurologic examination and/or on assessment tools as described below. Method/tool: First 3 y: BSID-II, physical and neurologic examinations; ages 3–6: Denver Developmental Screening Test, Early Language Milestone Scale and Zimmerman Preschool Articulation Test; Children >6 y: University of Vermont Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher’s Report form. Timing: wide range (mean 47.5 mo).Percentages of survivors with normal, mild-moderately or severely abnormal assessments, based on IVH. No IVH (n = unknown): 73%, 27%; grade 3 (n = 44): 36%, 64%; grade 4 (n = 39): 21%, 79%.
Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, 201333All infants born before 32 completed weeks’ gestation in western Austria between January 2003 and August 2006 (n = 303)Outcome: numerical skills. Method/tool: TEDI-MATH, a multicomponent dyscalculia test. Timing: 5 y.Percentage of subjects with delayed numerical skills: IVH (all grades): 11/24 = 45.8%; IVH grades 3/4): 3/4 = 75%.
Klebermass-Schrehof, 201234Preterm infants with GA below 32 wk admitted to single NICU in Austria between 1994 and 2005 (n = 471)Outcome: MDI at 5 y, CP at 5 y, visual and acoustic impairment at 5 y. Method/tool: MDI using Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 2 y and K-ABC at age 5 y. Timing: 2 y and 5 y.Percentage of subjects with K-ABC <70% and CP by IVH: no IVH: 7.6%, 14.3%; grade I IVH: 6.3%, 34.8%; grade II IVH: 12.9%, 55%; grade III IVH: 33.3%, 63.6%; grade IV IVH: 50%, 90.9%.
Neubauer, 200835Infants with BW below 1000 g between January 1993 and December 1998 who survived until discharge (n = 173)Outcome: normal, minor or major impairment. Method/tool: Examinations by experienced pediatric neurologists by using a modified Touwen test. Timing: wide range (mean 8.4 y).Outcomes in patients with grade I/II and grade III/IV/PVL. Mild: 38% normal, 46% minor impairment, and 15% major impairment. Severe: 22% normal, 11% minor impairment, and 67% major impairment.
O’Keefe, 200136Preterm infants born <30 wk and/or BW <1500 g between 1987 and 1998 with IVH (n = 68)Outcome: Ocular morbidity. Method/tool: visual acuity, orthoptic assessment, cycloplegic refraction, and fundal examination. Timing: Between 12 and 150 mo.Visual acuity <6/60 by severity of IVH: low grade: 2/30 (6.6%); high grade: 5/38 (13.2%).
Schmidhauser, 200642Infants with BW <1250 g from single center in Germany born between July 1992 and June 1994 (n = 87)Outcome: motor performance and movement quality. Method/tool: Zurich neuromotor assessment tool. Timing: 6 y.β coefficient (SE) and P value in regression model for IVH grades (0–4). Pure motor: –0.08 (0.16), P = .61. Adaptive fine motor: –0.39 (0.27), P = .16. Adaptive gross motor: –0.53 (0.20), P = .009. Static balance: = −0.36 (0.19), P = .07. Associated movements: 0.07 (0.18), P = .67.
Sherlock, 200537Infants born <1000 g or very preterm (<28 wk) in Victoria, Australia between January 1991 and December 1992 who survived until age 8 (n = 298)Outcome: CP, blindness, deafness, intellectual impairments (IQ < –1 SD). Method/tool: Pediatricians and psychologists using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Timing: 8 y.Rates of CP; IQ score < –1 SD by grades of IVH. Grade 0: 12/180 (6.7%); 64/180 (35.6%). Grade I: 3/47 (6.7%); 18/47 (38.3%). Grade II: 6/25 (24%); 9/25 (36.0%). Grade III: 2/12 (16.7%); 7/12 (58.3%). Grade IV: 6/6 (100%); 6/6 (100%).
Van de Bor, 200438Infants born in Netherlands at GA <32 wk and/or BW <1500 g at 1 of 8 centers in 1983 (n = 278)Outcome: Disability or handicaps, school performance. Method/tool: Home visit by 1 of 3 specifically trained pediatricians. Timing: 5 y.Percentage of children in special education by grades of IVH: no IVH: 17/216 (8.7%); grade I/II IVH: 9/45 (22.5%); grade III/IV IVH: 3/17 (20%).
Vollmer, 200339All infants <33 wk GA born between 1983 and 1988 and admitted within 1 wk of birth to NICU of University College Hospital, London (n = 505)Outcome: No NDI, impairment without disability, and impairment with disability. Method/tool: Neurodevelopmental assessment by investigators blinded to ultrasound results. Timing: 8 y.Percentage of disabling impairments by IVH groups: no IVH: 17/271 (6.3%); mild IVH: 6/82 (7.3%); severe IVH: 43/152 (28.2%).
Vollmer, 200640All infants born <33 wk GA between January 1979 and December 1991 admitted to single NICU University College Hospital, London (n = 682)Outcome: No NDI, impairment without disability, and impairment with disability. Method/tool: Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 8 y by pediatrician or psychologist. Timing: 8 y.Cognitive assessment scores of full-scale IQ by using Wechsler (SD); TOMI scores (SD). No IVH: 10117; 3.26 (2.5); grade 3 IVH: 9623; 5.98 (4.2).
  • BSID, Bayley Scales of Infant Development; BW, birth weight; IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage; K-ABC, Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children; MDI: Mental Development Index; TOMI, Test of Motor Impairment.