TABLE 3

Full Breastfeeding up to 31 Days and Child Outcomes at 3 and 5 Years of Age: Pre- and Postmatching

PrematchingPostmatching
TCDifference SETCDifference SE
Problem solving, 3 y53.7552.521.23***0.3553.7553.050.700.79
Problem solving, 5 y59.3058.061.24***0.3559.3058.031.260.83
Vocabulary, 3 y52.2250.341.88***0.4052.2250.911.300.95
Vocabulary, 5 y56.0955.400.690.3956.0956.51−0.410.89
Conduct, 3 y2.112.31–0.20***0.052.112.14−0.030.14
Conduct, 5 y1.431.56–0.13**0.051.431.390.040.11
Hyperactivity, 3 y3.073.27–0.19**0.073.073.040.030.16
Hyperactivity, 5 y3.313.43−0.110.083.313.010.290.18
Difficulties, 3 y7.638.11–0.47**0.147.637.500.130.35
Difficulties, 5 y7.157.49–0.33*0.167.156.540.600.36
Conduct, 5 y (teacher)0.730.74−0.010.040.730.670.060.10
Hyperactivity, 5 y (teacher)2.953.12–0.160.092.953.03−0.070.21
Difficulties, 5 y (teacher)5.776.21–0.44*0.185.775.94−0.160.40
  • Postmatching results have been adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing. N’s at age 3 years for the treatment group varied between 1262 and 1337 and between 3335 and 3419 for the control group. N’s at age 5 for the treatment group varied between 1229 and 1243 (teacher outcomes, 1154) and between 3078 and 3105 (teacher outcomes 2887) for the control group. C, control (not breastfed); Diff, difference in scores between groups; T, treatment (breastfed).

  • *** P ≤ .001.

  • ** P ≤ .01.

  • * P ≤ .05.

  • P ≤ .10.