TABLE 4

Adjusted Associations Between Adherence Score Tertiles and Cost Outcomes

OutcomenaAdherence TertileAdjusted 
(95% CI)Adjusted Difference 
(95% CI)
ED cost264High ED$615.64 (477.17 to 754.10)–$84.29* (–161.50 to –7.07)b
Low ED$699.92 (554.30 to 845.54)
Inpatient cost216High IP$3751.49 (2418.35 to 5084.63)$69.28 (–1101.14 to 1239.69)c
Low IP$3682.21 (2234.65 to 5129.77)
Total cost213High ED$7720.14 (5730.06 to 9728.23)–$1020.71 (–2578.26 to 536.84)c
Low ED$8749.85 (6720.87 to 10 778.84)
Total cost213High IP$4851.81 (3482.31 to 6.220.31)$82.22 (–1.105.97 to 1270.42)c
Low IP$4769.68 (3299.89 to 6239.28)
Total cost213High combined ED/IP$4446.13 (3158.84 to 5733.41)–$1296.23* (–2466.03 to –126.43)c
Low combined ED/IP$5742.35 (4290.46 to 7194.25)
Respiratory therapy cost213High combined ED/IP$45.95 (–128.75 to 220.65)–$166.27* (–315.57 to –16.98)c
Low combined ED/IP$212.22 (36.90 to 387.54)
Pharmacy cost213High combined ED/IP$136.60 (14.87 to 258.32)$36.55 (–74.07 to 147.16)c
Low combined ED/IP$100.05 (–37.24 to 237.34)
Radiology cost213High combined ED/IP$27.34 (–3.36 to 58.03)–$56.17* (–90.12 to –22.21)c
Low combined ED/IP$83.50 (49.13 to 117.87)
Laboratory cost213High Combined ED/IP$217.61 (159.42 to 275.80)–$103.93* (–168.30 to –39.56)c
Low combined ED/IP$321.54 (256.38 to 386.70)
  • All costs are reported in 2014 dollars. IP, inpatient.

  • a Cases with ED care who were discharged from the hospital or admitted: n = 264; cases admitted to the inpatient setting from the ED: n = 213; cases admitted to the inpatient setting either directly or through the ED: n = 216.

  • b Adjusted for age, medical complexity, triage acuity, seasonality, and whether the patient was admitted to the inpatient setting.

  • c Adjusted for age, medical complexity, categorical length of stay, and seasonality.

  • * P < .05.