TABLE 5

Full Breastfeeding ≥181 Days and Child Outcomes at 3 and 5 Years of Age: Results Pre- and Postmatching

PrematchingPostmatching
TCDifference SETCDifference SE
Problem solving, 3 y54.4352.521.90*0.7754.4351.482.951.39
Problem solving, 5 y59.5458.061.470.7959.5458.301.241.48
Vocabulary, 3 y50.8550.340.510.9050.8549.421.421.80
Vocabulary, 5 y53.2955.40–2.10**0.8553.2952.141.151.80
Conduct, 3 y1.882.31–0.42***0.121.881.95−0.060.22
Conduct, 5 y1.201.56–0.35**0.111.201.43−0.220.16
Hyperactivity, 3 y2.523.27–0.74***0.152.523.37–0.84***0.25
Hyperactivity, 5 y2.693.43–0.74***0.172.692.87−0.180.27
Difficulties, 3 y6.738.11–1.37***0.326.737.67−0.930.57
Difficulties, 5 y6.077.49–1.42***0.366.076.41−0.340.56
Conduct, 5 y (teacher)0.640.74−0.090.100.640.520.110.15
Hyperactivity, 5 y (teacher)2.613.12–0.50*0.212.612.82−0.210.36
Difficulties, 5 y (teacher)5.396.21–0.82*0.405.395.56−0.160.66
  • Postmatching results have been adjusted for multiple hypothesis testing. N’s at age 3 years for the treatment group varied between 195 and 220 and between 3335 and 3419 for the control group. N’s at age 5 years for the treatment group varied between 211 and 213 (teacher outcomes, 185) and between 3306 and 3337 (teacher outcomes 2877) for the control group. C, control (not breastfed); Diff, difference in scores between groups; T, treatment (breastfed).

  • *** P ≤ .001.

  • ** P ≤ .01.

  • * P ≤ .05.

  • P ≤ .10.