TABLE 3

Food Group, Energy, and Nutrient Daily Intakes in Subjects With ADHD and in Control Subjects

ADHD Cases (n = 60)Controls (n = 60)P
Food group intake,a g
 Dairy products296.0 (207.8–331.2)272.3 (210.3–322.4).773
 Cereals161.5 (143.6–188.0)168.1 (142.9–215.9).289
 Bakery6.6 (3.0–10.0)5.0 (2.9–9.6).715
 Vegetables59.6 (25.1–91.0)81.6 (45.4–110.9).018*
 Citric fruit17.8 (3.2–34.5)26.0 (13.4–53.0).031*
 Other fruit53.4 (29.7–95.3)60.1 (29.9–115.8).299
 Meat53.9 (40.4–67.6)53.3 (40.9–73.2).735
 Blue fish7.5 (0.0–11.9)8.8 (3.9–18.0).045*
 White fish12.7 (7.5–18.0)12.4 (8.8–16.3).592
 Sugar and candy4.7 (1.5–11.1)2.4 (0.6–5.3).007*
 Noncola soft drinksb41.1 (6.0–98.0)22.0 (0.0–65.5).017*
 Cola beveragesc17.2 (0.0–50.3)9.2 (0.0–24.2).041*
Energy, nutrient (per 1000 kcal), and caffeine intakes
 Energy, kcal1609.9 (375.3)1626.9 (382.8).806
 Carbohydrates, g122.7 (10.9)119.6 (11.0).114
  Simple sugars60.4 (16.7)54.5 (10.5).022*
 Protein, g47.3 (7.3)50.1 (7.0).031*
  Animal34.5 (7.1)36.6 (7.8).129
  Vegetable12.8 (2.2)13.5 (2.6).087
 Fat, g35.2 (3.9)35.4 (4.1).780
  Saturated fatty acids14.0 (2.1)14.2 (2.0).448
  Monounsaturated fat11.5 (1.3)11.5 (1.5).793
  Polyunsaturated fat6.1 (1.7)5.9 (1.6).441
 Dietary fiber, g9.4 (2.1)10.2 (2.5).057
 Iron, mg6.1 (1.0)6.4 (1.1).129
 Zinc, mg5.1 (0.8)5.4 (0.7).066
 Caffeine, mg3.8 (5.3)1.5 (1.9).003*
  • Data are presented as medians (25th–75th percentile) or as means (SDs), as appropriate.

  • a Dairy products include milk, cheese, yogurt, milk/ice cream, and dairy-based desserts; cereals include pasta, rice, potatoes, and breakfast cereals; bakery includes cookies, muffins, donuts, croissants, etc; vegetables (raw and cooked) include salads, tomatoes, spinach, broccoli, green beans, etc; citrus fruit include orange, mandarin, and kiwi; other fruit include apples, bananas, pears, etc; meat includes pork, chicken, beef, lamb, sausages, etc; fatty fish includes sardines, anchovies, tuna, mackerel, salmon, etc; white fish includes hake, codfish, etc; noncola soft drinks include lemon, orange, and other flavors of soda drinks (all caffeine-free); and cola drinks include regular and diet cola drinks.

  • b Seventy-two percent of cases and 80% of controls for noncola soft-drink consumers also drank cola.

  • c Eighty percent of cases and 70% of controls for “cola drinkers” also drank noncola soft drinks.

  • * P < .05.