TABLE 1

Characteristics of Newborns With Invasive Sepsis in the First 3 Days of Life, Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Neonatal Sepsis Activity, 2005 to 2014

CharacteristicOverall (%, n = 1484)GBS (%, n = 532)E coli (%, n = 368)Pa
Surveillance area<.0001
 California17.511.124.7
 Connecticut16.915.616.0
 Georgia40.542.338.0
 Minnesota25.131.021.2
Year.92
 20058.27.78.7
 200612.413.711.7
 200711.812.811.4
 200811.912.212.0
 20099.59.211.4
 20109.510.310.1
 201110.410.09.8
 20127.87.05.4
 20138.69.010.3
 201410.08.19.2
Boy53.353.454.6.71
Race.01
 White49.649.348.4
 Black34.940.433.7
 Other8.46.08.7
 Unknown7.14.39.2
Ethnicity.03
 Hispanic19.315.422.3
 Unknown5.44.34.9
Gestational age, wk<.0001
 ≤3332.220.960.6
 34–3610.07.76.8
 37+57.871.432.6
Birth weight, g<.0001
 <150023.315.643.6
 1500–249915.811.323.4
 2500–399954.265.829.2
 ≥40006.77.33.8
Cesarean delivery46.142.757.6<.0001
Maternal characteristics
 Age (median, IQR)b28 (23–33)26 (22–32)30 (25–35)<.0001
 Intrapartum fever20.619.327.1.006
 Suspected chorioamnionitisc30.523.851.6<.0001
 Rupture of membranes ≥18 hours before delivery42.035.061.7<.0001
 Preterm rupture of membranes before labor onset23.314.345.7<.0001
Intrapartum exposure to antibiotics50.034.675.8<.0001
 Intrapartum antibiotic exposure duration in hours (median, IQR)4.6 (1.1–24.3)1.9 (0.7–6.5)20.1 (3.1–112)<.0001
Intrapartum exposure to β lactam/cefazolin37.522.760.9<.0001
Day of onset<.0001
 Day 077.480.681.5
 Day 116.716.713.3
 Day 25.92.65.2
Clinical syndrome.06
 Meningitis4.24.96.3
 Primary bacteremia82.983.781.3
 Pneumonia5.07.04.6
 Other7.94.47.8
Sterile site
 Blood only97.898.397.0
 CSF only0.9 (n = 14)0.6 (n = 3)0.3 (n = 1)
 Blood and CSF1.3 (n = 19)1.1 (n = 6)2.7 (n = 10)
Length of hospitalization (d, median, IQR)b10 (6–22)10 (9–14)17 (9–50)<.0001
Outcome<.0001
 Survived, no sequelae at discharge82.687.068.5
 Survived, sequelae at discharge6.36.08.4
 Died11.17.023.1
  • a Comparison of GBS and E coli by χ2; 4 cases were recorded as growing both GBS and E coli and were excluded from comparisons.

  • b Continuous variables were compared by Kruskall–Wallace test.

  • c Documented physician-suspected chorioamnionitis; this variable was available for 2011–2014 (n = 545 cases for evaluation including 181 GBS cases and 128 E coli cases).