TABLE 2

Results From the Meta-analysis

ComparisonStudiesParticipantsStatistical MethodESEPI2 (%)
Working memory295Mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)16.46 (–14.22 to 47.13).12100
Processing speed296Mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)9.36 (3.73 to 14.98).00*0
Executive function4400Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)3.68 (1.35 to 6.02).00*98
Visual memory4361Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)2.71 (–2.31 to 7.74).2999
Visual-spatial ability5433Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)0.20 (–1.56 to 1.97).8298
Attention4402Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)−0.51 (–1.15 to 0.13).1284
Language270Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)−0.85 (–2.18 to 0.48).2185
General intellectual functioning4548Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)−1.22 (–2.53 to 0.10).0797
Motor coordination4361Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)−1.99 (–4.50 to 0.52).1298
Verbal memory2112Standard mean difference (IV, random, 95% CI)−6.80 (–19.43 to 5.83).2998
  • Domains ranked in order of largest to smallest effect size. IV, inverse variance.

  • * P = .05.