Diseases or Therapies That May Affect the Skeleton

Primary bone disorders
 o Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis
 o Osteogenesis imperfecta
Potential secondary bone diseases
 o Chronic inflammatory disorders
  - Inflammatory bowel disease
  - Juvenile idiopathic arthritis
  - Celiac disease
  - Cystic fibrosis
 o Chronic immobilization
  - Cerebral palsy
  - Myopathic disease
  - Epidermolysis bullosa
 o Endocrine disturbance
  - Turner syndrome
  - Anorexia nervosa
  - Type 1 diabetes
 o Cancer and therapies with adverse effects on bone health
  - Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  - Chemotherapy for childhood cancer
  - Transplantation (nonrenal)
 o Hematologic disorders
  - Thalassemia
  - Sickle cell disease
 o Genetic disorders
  - Ehlers Danlos syndrome
  - Galactosemia
  - Marfan syndrome
  • Adapted from Bishop et al.15 These are among conditions for which consideration of DXA screening and other diagnostic testing for bone health is warranted.