Factors Prompting BMD Evaluation in Athletes With Stress Fracture

Low BMI (<18.5 kg/m2)
Recurrent stress fractures
Oligo- or amenorrhea ≤6 months
A history of an ED, DE, or low EA
Chronic medical conditions associated with bone loss
Medications associated with adverse effects on bone health
Cancellous versus cortical bone fractures, particularly proximal femur, tibial plateau, and calcaneus
Cyclists, swimmers
No recent change in activity level or training intensity
  • ED indicates eating disorder; DE, disordered eating.

  • Reproduced with permission from Scofield KL, Hecht S. Bone health in endurance athletes: runners, cyclists, and swimmers. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11(6):328–334. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.