TABLE 3

Definition of BMD Criteria in Adolescents

ISCD Official Position for Children and Adolescents46ACSM Guidelines for Athletes5
OsteoporosisVertebral compression fracture or Z score ≤ –2 and clinically significant fracture historyaZ Score ≤2 and clinical risk factorsb
Low BMDZ Score –1.0 to –1.9 and clinical risk factors
Lower BMD than expectedZ Score ≤ –1.0
  • ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine; ISCD, International Society for Clinical Densitometry.

  • a Two or more long bone fractures by age 10 or ≥3 long bone fractures at any age up to 19 years.

  • b Nutritional deficiencies, hypoestrogenism, or stress fracture.