TABLE 4

Age at Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Total Developmental Scale Score at Age 4 Years in Singletons With No Developmental Disabilities (n = 257): Upstate KIDS Study

Gross Motor MilestonesTotal Developmental Scale Score at Age 4 y
Model 1Model 2Model 3
B (95% CI), PB (95% CI), PB (95% CI), P
Sitting without support−16.4 (–37.1 to 4.3), .12−9.4 (–30.8 to 12.0), .39−10.1 (–31.4 to 11.2), .35
Hands-and-knees crawling−22.1 (–40.8 to –3.5), .02−23.0 (–42.5 to –3.5), .02−23.4 (–42.9 to –3.9), .02
Standing with assistance−21.4 (–39.6 to –3.1), .02−18.7 (–37.5 to 0.01), .05−18.4 (–37.1 to 0.4), .06
Standing alone6.4 (–18.3 to 31.1), .610.4 (–25.5 to 29.7), .980.3 (–25.6 to 26.3), .99
Walking with assistance−7.7 (–27.5 to 12.1), .45−13.5 (–34.7 to 7.7), .21−13.8 (–35.1 to 7.6), .21
Walking alone−7.0 (–29.0 to 15.1), .54−7.2 (–29.7 to 15.2), .53−8.0 (–30.6 to 14.7), .49
  • Developmental skills were assessed by using the BDI-2. Model 1: adjusted for maternal age, education, race, prepregnancy BMI, smoking, drinking, being married, having private insurance, having older sibling for the child, and a child’s sex, age, and day care attendance before 12 months. Model 2: additionally adjusted for gestational age and birth weight. Model 3: additionally adjusted for exposure to infertility treatment.