TABLE 1

Perinatal Characteristics and Numbers, Rates, and Risks of Any Congenital Heart Defect Diagnosed Among 2588 Singleton Live-Born Infants With Down Syndrome, Born in Sweden 1992–2012

Infants With Down SyndromeRR (95% CI)
Total, nAny Defect, n (%)Crude RRAdjusted RRa
Year of birth
 1992–1994432236 (54.6)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 1995–1997328183 (55.8)1.02(0.90–1.16)1.00(0.86–1.16)
 1998–2000291156 (53.6)0.98(0.86–1.12)0.94(0.80–1.11)
 2001–2003379203 (53.6)0.98(0.86–1.11)0.96(0.83–1.11)
 2004–2006414223 (53.9)0.99(0.87–1.12)0.96(0.84–1.11)
 2007–2009387203 (52.4)0.96(0.84–1.09)0.95(0.82–1.10)
 2010–2012357183 (51.3)0.94(0.82–1.07)0.92(0.80–1.07)
Maternal age, y
 ≤193220 (62.5)1.11(0.84–1.47)1.38(1.04–1.84)
 20–24188109 (58.0)1.03(0.89–1.19)0.96(0.81–1.14)
 25–29495279 (56.4)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 30–34846456 (53.9)0.96(0.87–1.06)0.96(0.86–1.07)
 35–39714362 (50.7)0.90(0.81–1.00)0.90(0.80–1.02)
 ≥40313161 (51.4)0.91(0.80–1.04)0.89(0.76–1.04)
Parity
 1836456 (54.6)1.00(0.92–1.09)0.99(0.90–1.09)
 2948515 (54.3)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 ≥3804416 (51.7)0.95(0.87–1.04)0.92(0.83–1.02)
BMI
 ≤18.44624 (52.2)1.02(0.77–1.36)1.00(0.76–1.32)
 18.5–24.91308666 (50.9)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 25.0–29.9605327 (54.0)1.06(0.97–1.16)1.08(0.99–1.19)
 30.0–34.9198113 (57.1)1.12(0.98–1.28)1.16(1.01–1.34)
 ≥35.07447 (63.5)1.25(1.04–1.49)1.34(1.11–1.61)
 Missing357210 (58.8)
Diabetes
 No25461364 (53.6)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 Yes4223 (54.8)1.02(0.77–1.35)1.14(0.86 -1.50)
Hypertensive disease
 No25221350 (53.5)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 Yes6637 (56.1)1.05(0.84–1.30)1.01(0.80–1.28)
Smoking
 No21401115 (52.1)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 Yes289166 (57.4)1.10(0.99–1.23)1.13(1.01–1.27)
 Missing159106 (66.7)
Infant gender
 Boys1435727 (50.7)1.00(ref)1.00(ref)
 Girls1153660 (57.2)1.13(1.05–1.21)1.12(1.04–1.21)
  • a Adjusted for year of birth, maternal age, parity, BMI, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and infant gender.