Background Characteristics of the Control Population (n = 4531) During the Baseline and Intervention Periods

VariableBaseline, n = 1903Intervention, n = 2628Pa
Maternal educationb
 ≥6 y of schooling101765.4175067.4
 Primary school (5 y) or less53934.684632.6.18
Wealth status
Maternal age groups, y
 Mulitpara, 1–280642.4108141.1
 Multipara, ≥3814.31194.5.68
ANC attendance
 ≥4 ANC visits57030.088933.8
 <4 ANC visits133370.0173966.2.01
Gender of newborn
No. of newborns
 Multiple births50.320.1.24
Birth weight
 Very low birth weight, <1500 g361.9411.6
 Low birth weight, 1500–2499 g22311.726410.0
 Normal birth weight, ≥2500 g164486.4232388.4.13
Gestational age, wk
  • a P values determined by using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and Pearson’s χ2 test.

  • b The maternal education variable is missing 379 values, 347 in the baseline period and 32 in the intervention period.