TABLE 4

Association Between ACEs and Teacher-Reported Emergent Literacy Skills

OutcomeNo. of ACE ExposuresSample SizeaPrevalence, %OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)b
Teacher rating of emergent literacy skills
Not yet or beginning to understand and interpret a story or other text read to him/her044912.9ReferentReferent
127118.81.6 (1.04–2.4)1.4 (0.9–2.2)
215320.91.8 (1.1–2.9)1.5 (0.9–2.5)
≥312126.52.4 (1.5–4.0)2.2 (1.3–3.7)
Total99417.4
Not yet or beginning to easily and quickly name all upper- and lower-case letters04487.6ReferentReferent
127310.31.4 (0.8–2.4)1.2 (0.7–2.0)
215712.71.8 (0.99–3.2)1.4 (0.7–2.6)
≥312317.92.7 (1.5–4.7)2.1 (1.1–3.9)
Total100110.4
Not yet or beginning to read simple books independently044622.7ReferentReferent
127126.91.3 (0.9–1.8)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
215527.71.3 (0.9–2.0)1.1 (0.7–1.7)
≥312033.31.7 (1.1–2.7)1.4 (0.8–2.2)
Total99225.9
Not yet or beginning to demonstrate understanding of some of the conventions of print044718.3ReferentReferent
127222.81.3 (0.9–1.9)1.1 (0.8–1.7)
215726.11.6 (1.02–2.4)1.4 (0.9–2.1)
≥312234.42.3 (1.5–3.6)2.0 (1.2–3.1)
Total99822.8Referent
  • a Sample sizes not equal because of missing data.

  • b Adjusted for child age, gender, race, ethnicity, and income, as well as maternal education and parent relationship status at birth of child.