TABLE 3

Outcomes of UNHS Versus Risk-Factor Screening

OutcomeNormativeDemographically Adjusted MeanaFully Adjusted Meanb
Mean (SD)UNHSRisk FactorMean Diff (95% CI)PMean Diff (95% CI)P
 All childrenc
 Age diagnosed, mo7.915.9−8.0 (–12.3 to –3.7)<.001−6.8 (–11.1 to –2.6).002
 Language
  Receptive language100 (15)2180.978.02.9 (–5.2 to 11.0).483.4 (–2.5, 9.3).26
  Expressive language100 (15)2181.176.05.1 (–3.3 to 13.5).235.3 (–1.1 to 11.7).11
  Receptive vocabulary100 (15)2279.773.95.8 (–4.9 to 16.6).296.2 (–0.3 to 12.7).06
  Letter knowledge12.29.03.3 (–0.3 to 6.9).082.7 (–0.4 to 5.9).09
 Behavior problems6.9 (5.1)299.69.60.0 (–2.3 to 2.4).97−0.1 (–2.6 to 2.5).94
 Health-related quality of life
  PedsQL81.9 (12.6)2576.775.51.2 (–5.1 to 7.6).702.3 (–4.3 to 9.0).49
  HUI (child)0.90 (0.13)300.720.660.06 (–0.04 to 0.16).200.04 (–0.04 to 0.13).33
  HUI (parent)0.86 (0.31)310.870.870.00 (–0.06 to 0.07).960.01 (–0.06 to 0.07).88
Without intellectual disabilityc
 Age diagnosed, months7.016.3−9.3 (–14.3 to –4.3)<.001−8.4 (–13.1 to –3.7).001
 Language
  Receptive language100 (15)2187.582.74.8 (–3.2 to 12.9).245.2 (–1.9 to 12.3).15
  Expressive language100 (15)2187.880.07.7 (–0.9 to 16.4).088.2 (0.5 to 15.9).04
  Receptive vocabulary100 (15)2290.882.97.9 (0.0 to 15.7).058.1 (0.8 to 15.4).03
  Letter knowledge13.210.92.3 (–1.6 to 6.2).251.8 (–1.9 to 5.5).34
 Behavior problems6.9 (5.1)299.99.20.7 (–1.9 to 3.3).610.8 (–1.9 to 3.5).56
 Health-related quality of life
  PedsQL81.9 (12.6)2579.076.22.9 (–3.9 to 9.6).402.7 (–4.3 to 9.7).45
  HUI (child)0.90 (0.13)300.760.720.04 (–0.04 to 0.12).330.04 (–0.04 to 0.12).29
  HUI (parent)0.86 (0.31)310.870.870.00 (–0.07 to 0.07)1.000.00 (–0.08 to 0.07).91
  • HUI, Health Utilities Index; PedsQL, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; --, (Letter Knowledge): no standardized normative mean; --, (age of diagnosis): N/A.

  • a Adjusted for parent education, English as a second language, disadvantage index, gender (and age, for letter knowledge).

  • b With additional adjustment for nonverbal IQ and current hearing loss.

  • c Sample n varied between 101 and 120 for demographically adjusted model, and 93 to 111 for fully adjusted model. When children with intellectual disability were excluded, the sample n varied from 87 to 96 for the demographically adjusted model and 85 to 93 for the fully adjusted model.