TABLE 1

Studies Included in Left Occipitotemporal and Perisylvian Regions: Language and Reading Section

ReferencenAgePoverty MeasureMethodMain Findings
D’Angiulli, et al (2012)362813 yAdapted Hollingshead index (residential area quality, income, education, occupation); 14 adolescents from low-SES neighborhood, 14 from high-SES neighborhood; compared high- versus low-SES groupsCross-sectional ERP and EEG study with target detection task; diurnal cortisol collected on day of ERP/EEGHigher-SES adolescents showed greater ERP/EEG differentiation between attended versus unattended stimuli; no SES-related differences in task performance or accuracy; lower-SES adolescents had slightly higher cortisol levels, but no differences in cortisol reactivity to the ERP/EEG task between the SES groups
Jednoróg, et al (2012)182310 y (8–11)Weighted average of maternal education and maternal current occupation statusCross-sectional MRI studySES positively correlated with literacy, verbal skills, and gray matter in middle temporal gyri, left fusiform gyrus, and right inferior occipitotemporal region; SES positively correlated with gyrification in left hemisphere; SES not related to phonological skills
Noble, et al (2012)206011 y (5–17)Average years of parental education and family income/needs ratioCross-sectional MRI studySignificant parental education × child age interaction for left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus indicating increasing SES disparities in volume with age (volume decreased with age in lowest SES, was stable in middle SES, and increased in highest SES; n = 44 for this analysis)
Noble, et al (2007)16150First gradeComposite of parent education, occupation, and income/needs ratioCross-sectional study using cognitive tasks of language, visuospatial processing, memory, working memory, cognitive control, and reward processingSES related to scores on all tasks except reward processing; SES accounted for more variance in language scores than other scores; home/school variables accounted for majority of variance in language scores accounted for by SES
Noble, et al (2006)14388 y (7–9), below–average reading abilityComposite score of parent education, occupation, and income/needs ratioCross-sectional fMRI study using pseudoword task and tests of phonological awareness, reading ability, and receptive vocabularySignificant phonological awareness × SES interactions in left fusiform region (high-SES children with low phonological awareness more likely to increase fusiform activity during phonological task than low-SES children with low phonological awareness); for low-SES children only, strong association between phonological awareness and left fusiform activity; SES not related to reading ability, receptive vocabulary, or accuracy on fMRI task
Noble et al (2015)37109912 y (3–20)Parent education and family incomeCross-sectional MRI study plus inhibitory control, working memory, picture vocabulary and oral reading recognition tasksParent education and family income positively associated with cortical surface area in regions related to language ability (education: left superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, medial orbito-frontal region, and precuneus; income: bilateral inferior temporal, insula, and inferior frontal gyrus); income associated with surface area in brain regions responsible for language and EF
Raizada, et al (2008)24145 yHollingshead indexCross-sectional fMRI study using a rhyming task and tests of receptive language, phonological ability, language, and IQSES positively related to asymmetry in inferior frontal gyrus; relation remained significant after controlling for language scores; rhyming task performance not related to SES or inferior frontal gyrus activity
Tomalski, et al (2013)38457 mo (6–9)Parental occupation (3 categories) and gross family incomeCross-sectional EEG studyHigher frontal γ-power in infants from higher-income families; significant differences between highest- versus middle and lowest-level maternal job groups; no power differences by paternal occupation
  • ERP, event-related potential; fMRI, functional MRI.