Characteristics of Peds Who Report Often or Always Dismissing Families for Refusing ≥1 Vaccines in the Infant Series

CharacteristicBivariable OR (95% CI)PMultivariable OR (95% CI)P
Age, per 10 y1.16 (0.87–1.54).32
 Male1.35 (0.73–2.47)
Practice location
 Rural0.48 (0.16–1.42)
 Private practice5.04 (1.51–16.86).014.90 (1.40–17.19).01
 Community or hospital-based/HMORef.Ref.
State allows philosophical exemptiona
 No5.46 (2.72–10.99)<.00013.70 (1.74–7.85).0007
Difficulty in obtaining exemptionb
 Difficult or medium2.39 (1.11–5.18).03
 Midwest2.47 (0.59–10.40).00061.24 (0.28–5.57).04
 Northeast7.03 (1.93–25.64)3.08 (0.78–12.16)
 South9.19 (2.66–31.82)4.07 (1.08–15.31)
  • OR, odds ratio; Ref., reference.

  • a States allowing philosophical exemptions: AZ, AR, CA, CO, ID, LA, ME, MI, MN, NM, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, TX, UT, VT, WA, WI.

  • b States with easy exemption policies: AZ, CA, CO, CT, HI, MD, MO, ND, OR, RI, VT, WA, WI. States with medium exemption policies: AK, DC, ID, IL, IN, KS, LA, ME, MA, MI, NV, NJ, NY, NC, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN. States with difficult exemption policies: AL, AR, DE, FL, GA, IA, KY, MN, MT, NE, NH, NM, SC, TX, UT, VA, WY (MS and WV were classified as difficult because they do not allow any nonmedical exemptions).