TABLE 1

Descriptive Statistics

AgeTotal (%)Mean (SD)MinMax
Control variables
 Child’s gender5 mo1269
  0 girl597 (47.0)
  1 boy672 (53.0)
 Child’s birth order5 mo1269
  1, firstborn576 (45.4)
  2, had 1 sibling at birth514 (40.5)
  3, had 2 siblings at birth132 (10.4)
  4, had 3 siblings at birth(2.3)
  5, had at least 4 siblings at birth17 (1.3)
 Family status5 mo1266
  0 nonintact244 (19.3)
  1 intact1022 (80.5)
 SES factor5–53 mo1269
  0 adequate SES941 (74.1)
  1 low SES (bottom 25th quartile)328 (25.9)
 CSNRBirth11690.90 (1.17)0.004.88
 Difficult temperament5 mo12642.72 (1.58)0.008.00
 Childbearing age5 mo126929.00 (5.37)16.4044.50
 Family dysfunction5 mo12571.70 (1.40)0.006.55
 Neighborhood safety5 mo12001.81 (0.61)1.003.80
 Neighborhood social problems5 mo12492.79 (0.36)1.573.00
 Negative parenting factor5–53 mo12690.06 (0.62)−1.542.15
 Family deviancy factor5–53 mo12690.01 (0.20)–0.200.71
 Parent mental health factor5–53 mo12690.02 (0.55)−1.031.91
 Child peer relationship factor5–53 mo1269–0.02 (0.30)−1.000.55
Independent variables
 CCS intensity5–53 mo1269
  1 low CCS hours416 (32.8)
  2 moderate CCS hours394 (31.0)
  3 high CCS hours459 (36.2)
 Center-based CCS type5–53 mo1119
  3 early-onset center-based CCS133 (11.9)
  2 late-onset center-based CCS292 (26.1)
  1 never center-based CCS694 (62.0)
Dependent variables
 Reading (0 = repeated a grade)12 y107562.50 (26.44)0.00100.00
 Writing (0 = repeated a grade)12 y113665.55 (25.64)0.00100.00
 Mathematic (0 = repeated a grade)12 y111065.57 (26.74)0.0099.65
  • The SES factor variable is shown in its categorical formats as used in the analyses. CSNR includes birth weight, gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, retardation of cranial perimeter growth, congenital abnormalities, Apgar score, and neonatal complications).