TABLE 3

Child Care Trajectories (Intensity and Center-Care) Predicting Preadolescent Academic Achievement Scores Using Multiple Linear Regressions

ReadingWritingMathematics
B95% CIPESB95% CIPESB95% CIPES
Model with CCS intensity (n = 1269)
 Step 1
  Gender−8.53−11.42 to –5.64<.001–0.34−11.73−14.43 to –9.03<.001–0.47−4.78−7.73 to –1.84.001–0.18
  Birth order−1.91−3.84 to 0.01.05–0.08−2.42−4.22 to –0.62.008–0.10−2.05−4.00 to 0.10.04–0.08
  Family status4.821.02 to 8.63.010.194.580.97 to 8.19.010.196.532.57 to 10.50.0010.25
  CSNR−0.97−2.52 to 0.58.22–0.04−0.73−2.19 to 0.73.33–0.03–0.68−2.28 to 0.92.40–0.03
  Difficult temperament1.910.45 to 3.36.010.081.930.56 to 3.31.0060.081.600.11 to 3.09.040.06
  Maternal age2.140.56 to 3.73.0080.081.620.13 to 3.11.030.071.11–0.55 to 2.76.190.04
  Family dysfunction−0.46−2.16 to 1.23.59–0.02−0.37−1.94 to 1.20.64–0.020.09−1.60 to 1.78.920.00
  Neighborhood safety−0.26−1.86 to 1.34.75–0.01−0.65−2.11 to 0.82.39–0.03–0.81−2.42 to 0.80.32–0.03
  Social problems in neighborhood−0.11−1.77 to 1.54.900.000.28−1.26 to 1.82.720.010.23−1.42 to 1.87.790.01
  T1—SES factor−15.32−19.19 to –11.45<.001–0.60−14.68−18.28 to –11.08<.001–0.59−14.13−18.06 to –10.20<.001–0.54
  T1—Negative parenting factor−0.54−2.56 to 1.48.60–0.02−0.2−2.08 to 1.67.83–0.010.39−1.66 to 2.45.710.02
  T1—Family deviancy factor0.68−1.05 to 2.40.440.030.32−1.28 to 1.92.700.010.87–0.85 to 2.59.320.03
  T1—Parent mental health factor−0.91−3.18 to 1.36.43–0.03−0.92−3.01 to 1.17.39–0.04–0.973.23 to 1.29.40–0.04
  T1—Child peer relationships factor0.44−1.52 to 2.39.660.020.32−1.49 to 2.14.730.011.49–0.47 to 3.45.140.06
  CCS intensity trajectory contrasts
   High vs low CCS hours−0.28−3.97 to 3.42.88–0.012.67–0.79 to 6.13.130.101.06−2.62 to 4.73.570.05
   Moderate vs low CCS hours−1.81−5.47 to 1.85.33–0.070.09−3.27 to 3.45.960.00–0.76−4.42 to 2.89.68–0.03
 Step 2
  SES interactions with CCS intensity trajectory contrasts
  High vs low intensity × SES9.490.06 to 18.92.05.379.150.25 to 18.05.040.3711.812.23 to 21.38.020.46
  Moderate vs low intensity × SES4.00−3.60 to 11.60.30.165.78−1.35 to 12.91.110.242.57−5.26 to 10.40.520.10
  R20.154<.0010.189<.0010.128<.001
  F14.21<.00118.26<.00111.53<.001
  Δ R20.003.120.004.080.005.05
  Δ F2.4082.8373.407
Model with CB CCS type (n = 1119)
 Step 1
  Gender−8.78−11.82 to –5.73<.001–0.34−11.67−14.51 to –8.83<.001–0.46−4.80−7.82 to –1.780.002–0.18
  Birth order−1.59−3.65 to 0.460.13–0.06−2.64−4.54 to 0.730.007–0.10−1.90−3.95 to 0.140.07–0.07
  Family status4.320.14 to 8.510.040.173.70–0.23 to 7.630.070.156.602.36 to 10.850.0020.26
  CSNR−0.68−2.33 to 0.970.42–0.03–0.37−1.93 to 1.190.64–0.01–0.37−2.05 to 1.310.67–0.01
  Difficult temperament2.210.68 to 3.730.0040.092.030.62 to 3.440.0050.081.820.28 to 3.360.020.07
  Maternal age2.620.90 to 4.330.0030.102.380.79 to 3.980.0030.091.30–0.41 to 3.010.130.05
  Family dysfunction−0.25−2.02 to 1.520.78–0.01–0.13−1.82 to 1.550.880.000.53−1.24 to 2.300.560.02
  Neighborhood safety−0.39−2.07 to 1.290.65–0.02–0.75−2.31 to 0.820.35–0.03–0.77−2.47 to 0.920.37–0.03
  Social problems in neighborhood0.51−1.23 to 2.250.570.021.27–0.38 to 2.930.130.051.07–0.71 to 2.840.240.04
  T1—SES factor−13.92−18.10 to –9.73<.001–0.54−13.33−17.25 to –9.42<.001–0.54−13.59−17.87 to –9.31<.001–0.53
  T1—Negative parenting factor−0.66−2.75 to 1.420.53–0.03–0.43−2.43 to 1.570.67–0.020.54−1.58 to 2.660.620.02
  T1—Family deviancy factor0.61−1.22 to 2.430.520.030.41−1.23 to 2.050.620.020.89–0.87 to 2.650.320.03
  T1—Parent mental health factor−0.69−3.07 to 1.680.57–0.03–0.79−3.01 to 1.420.48–0.03−1.33−3.70 to 1.040.27–0.05
  T1—Child peer relationships factor0.19−1.88 to 2.270.850.01–0.05−1.99 to 1.890.960.000.79−1.28 to 2.870.460.03
  CB CCS trajectory contrasts
   Early-onset vs never−3.19−7.91 to 1.530.19–0.12–0.49−4.95 to 3.970.83–0.020.45−4.34 to 5.240.850.02
   Late-onset vs never−2.02−5.57 to 1.530.27–0.08–0.95−4.23 to 2.320.57–0.04−1.70−5.24 to 1.830.35–0.07
 Step 2
SES interactions with CB CCS trajectory contrasts
  Early-onset vs never × SES17.425.10 to 29.740.0060.6819.717.77 to 31.640.0010.7916.182.22 to 30.130.020.66
  Late-onset vs never × SES9.210.66 to 17.760.030.375.94−2.22 to 14.100.150.249.820.97 to 18.680.030.39
  R20.140<.0010.164<.0010.118<.001
  F11.18<.00113.56<.0019.22<.001
  Δ R20.0090.0060.0090.0030.0060.01
  Δ F5.5816.0633.038
  • ES are standardized coefficients. Gender: 1 = boys, 0 = girls; birth order: 0 = firstborn, 1 = has siblings; family status: 1 = intact family, 0 = nonintact (blended or single-parent families); SES: 0 = adequate (top 75th quartile); 1 = nonadequate (bottom quartile). —, not applicable; CI, confidence interval; T1, Time 1, 5 months to 5 years.