TABLE 2

Bivariate Associations Between Potential Confounders and the Study’s Dependent, Independent, and Moderator Variables

CCS Intensity Sample (n = 1269)
Dependent Variables: 12-y Government ExaminationsIndependent Variable: CCS Intensity TrajectoriesModerator: SES
ReadingWritingMathematicsLow Hours (= 416)Moderate Hours (= 394)High Hours (= 459)PAdequate SES (= 941)Low SES (= 328)P
rPrPrP
Reading60.01 (28.13)61.62 (26.74)66.47 (23.41).00167.73 (23.22)48.85 (29.09)<.001
Writing61.00 (27.68)64.72 (25.17)70.31 (22.76)<.00170.43 (22.20)51.45 (28.87)<.001
Mathematics62.36 (28.83)64.92 (26.45)69.96 (23.58)<.00170.59 (23.21)52.47 (30.35)<.001
CCS intensity trajectories0.10<.0010.15<.0010.12<.0012.19 (0.81)1.60 (0.72)<.001
Gender–0.16<.001–0.23<.001–0.09.0030.53 (0.50)0.50 (0.50)0.56 (0.50).270.54 (0.50)0.51 (0.50).48
Birth order–0.05.12–0.08.01–0.08.011.91 (0.96)1.68 (0.79)1.62 (0.73)<.0011.72 (0.79)1.79 (0.95).20
Family status0.17<.0010.18<.0010.19<.0010.78 (0.42)0.80 (0.40)0.84 (0.37).080.88 (0.33)0.61 (0.49).00
CSNR–0.06.05–0.06.07–0.05.120.94 (1.19)0.85 (1.18)0.90 (1.13).510.85 (1.16)1.04 (1.18).02
Difficult temperament0.07.010.08.0080.06.032.64 (1.62)2.77 (1.57)2.73 (1.56).512.73 (1.59)2.68 (1.55).66
Maternal age0.16<.0010.14<.0010.11<.00128.64 (5.93)28.18 (5.31)30.02 (4.71)<.00129.91 (4.76)26.37 (6.13)<.001
Family dysfunction–0.09.003–0.09.002–0.08.0061.80 (1.42)1.70 (1.36)1.62 (1.41).201.55 (1.31)2.15 (1.55)<.001
Neighborhood safety–0.08.007–0.10<.001–0.09.0021.88 (0.64)1.84 (0.64)1.73 (0.56)<.0011.76 (0.59)1.98 (0.65)<.001
Social problems in neighborhood0.08.0070.11<.0010.100.0012.73 (0.42)2.78 (0.35)2.84 (0.30)<.0012.83 (0.31)2.67 (0.45)<.001
T1—SES Factor–0.32<.001–0.33<.001–0.30<.0010.43 (0.50)0.27 (0.44)0.10 (0.30)<.001
T1—Positive parenting factor0.01.740.01.680.00.87–0.03 (0.39)–0.02 (0.34)–0.07 (0.35).09–0.04 (0.35)–0.04 (0.39).74
T1—Negative parenting factor–0.06.06–0.05.08–0.03.250.05 (0.66)0.08 (0.60)0.05 (0.61).830.06 (0.60)0.07 (0.69).71
T1—Family deviancy factor–0.06.06–0.07.02–0.05.110.01 (0.19)0.02 (0.21)0.00 (0.19).60–0.01 (0.18)0.06 (0.23)<.001
T1—Parent mental health factor–0.16<.001–0.17<.001–0.16<.0010.10 (0.58)0.04 (0.54)–0.08 (0.51)<.001–0.09 (0.51)0.31 (0.56)<.001
T1—Child peer relationships factor0.09.0040.09.0030.10<.001–0.02 (0.33)–0.03 (0.29)0.00 (0.29).360.00 (0.30)–0.05 (0.32).01
Center-Based CCS Sample (n = 1119)
Dependent Variables: 12-y Government ExaminationsIndependent Variable: Center-Based CCS TrajectoriesModerator: SES
ReadingWritingMathematicsNever CB CCS (n = 694)Late-Onset CB CCS (n = 292)Early-Onset CB CCS (= 133)PAdequate (= 876)Low (= 243)P
rPrPrP
Reading64.47 (25.61)62.66 (25.37)62.38 (25.86).4767.45 (23.36)50.37 (28.61)<.001
Writing66.99 (24.84)66.10 (24.91)67.43 (24.91).8070.39 (22.38)53.88 (28.78)<.001
Mathematics67.19 (25.80)65.53 (25.61)68.11 (25.83).5370.62 (23.26)53.33 (29.53)<.001
CB CCS Trajectories–0.03.280.00.940.00.921.52 (0.71)1.40 (0.64).02
Gender–0.16<.001–0.23<.001–0.08.010.52 (0.50)0.55 (0.50)0.50 (0.50).630.54 (0.50)0.47 (0.50).05
Birth order–0.02.57–0.05.11–0.05.111.68 (0.80)1.68 (0.72)1.82 (0.98).171.70 (0.78)1.70 (0.91).90
Family status0.16<.0010.15<.0010.19<.0010.84 (0.37)0.80 (0.40)0.76 (0.43).070.88 (0.33)0.60 (0.49)<.001
CSNR–0.05.17–0.04.28–0.03.310.93 (1.17)0.81 (1.17)0.80 (1.13).190.85 (1.17)1.01 (1.13).06
Difficult Temperament0.08.010.07.020.07.032.73 (1.63)2.78 (1.64)2.69 (1.34).802.73 (1.60)2.78 (1.59).71
Maternal age0.17<.0010.16<.0010.12<.00128.76 (5.32)29.26 (5.11)29.86 (5.60).0629.85 (4.70)26.03 (6.25)<.001
Family dysfunction–0.07.03–0.07.03–0.06.071.63 (1.42)1.69 (1.35)1.83 (1.37).201.55 (1.30)2.10 (1.63)<.001
Neighborhood safety–0.07.02–0.10.003–0.09.011.79 (0.61)1.82 (0.61)1.76 (0.57).571.76 (0.59)1.93 (0.65)<.001
Social problems in neighborhood0.09.0030.12<.0010.12<.0012.80 (0.35)2.78 (0.37)2.77 (0.33).562.82 (0.31)2.67 (0.45)<.001
T1—SES factor–0.28<.001–0.27<.001–0.28<.0010.24 (0.43)0.20 (0.40)0.15 (0.36).06
T1—Positive parenting factor0.03.340.03.310.01.64–0.03 (0.35)–0.08 (0.35)–0.07 (0.36).11–0.04 (0.35)–0.08 (0.36).12
T1—Negative parenting factor–0.08.01–0.08.01–0.04.180.04 (0.60)0.14 (0.62)0.07 (0.64).040.05 (0.59)0.13 (0.67).08
T1—Family deviancy factor–0.06.09–0.07.04–0.05.140.01 (0.20)0.01 (0.20)0.01 (0.20).99–0.01 (0.18)0.08 (0.25)<.001
T1—Parent mental health factor–0.15<.001–0.16<.001–0.16<.001–0.04 (0.51)0.09 (0.59)0.04 (0.62).003–0.09 (0.51)0.35 (0.56)<.001
T1—Child peer relationships factor0.09.0040.10.0020.10.0030.00 (0.30)–0.04 (0.31)–0.05 (0.32).070.00 (0.30)–0.08 (0.32)<.001
  • Data are presented as r, mean, and SD. The center-based (CB) CCS sample eliminates those who remained in parental care (n = 150), thus comparing only children who attend CCS. Among the variables tested as potential selection bias factors, only the positive parenting factor was not related to child care, SES, or academic achievement. It was thus dropped from our analyses, leaving 14 confound variables in the analyses. Also, children in either child-care trajectory (independent variables) differed on 1 individual (birth order) and 6 family variables (maternal age, neighborhood safety, social problems in neighborhood, SES, negative parenting, and parental mental health); T1, Time 1, 5 months to 5 years. These 7 selection bias variables were used as controls in the analyses. —, not applicable.