TABLE 1

Differential Diagnosis of Cholestasis in Neonates Considered in This Patient

CategoriesSpecific Diseases
Hepatic bile duct abnormalitiesBiliary atresia, choledochal cyst, cholelithiasis, spontaneous perforation of bile duct, nonsyndromic paucity of bile ducts, neonatal sclerosing cholangitis
InfectionViral (HIV, cytomegalovirus, herpes, rubella, parvovirus B19, echovirus, adenovirus, coxsackie virus)
Bacterial (sepsis, urinary tract infection, syphilis)
Endocrine disorderHypopituitarism, hypocortisolism
Metabolic and genetic diseasesAlagille syndrome, cystic fibrosis, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, tyrosinemia, galactosemia, fructosemia, Gaucher disease, Wolman disease, Niemann–Pick type C, mitochondrial disorders, congenital disorders of glycosylation, peroxisomal disorders
AlloimmuneGestational alloimmune liver disease (neonatal hemochromatosis)
Miscellaneous“Idiopathic” neonatal hepatitis, shock or hypoperfusion, intestinal obstruction
ToxicDrugs, parenteral nutrition