TABLE 4

Adjusted ORs for MCAs in Children According to Maternal NRT Exposure and Smoking During Early Pregnancy, Using Only Gestational Smoking Status

VariableNRT Group
(n = 2677)Smokers
(n = 9980)
Adjusted ORa,b (99% CI)PAdjusted ORa,b (99% CI)P
All MCAs combined1.12 (0.84–1.48).311.05 (0.89–1.23).47
Heart1.01 (0.60–1.70).961.09 (0.83–1.46).39
Limb0.99 (0.50–1.95).981.04 (0.73–1.48).76
Genital system1.14 (0.59–2.20).620.94 (0.63–1.38).66
Urinary system1.82 (0.85–3.89).040.86 (0.47–1.57).51
Chromosomal0.74 (0.19–2.78).560.71 (0.33–1.49).24
Musculoskeletal1.79 (0.76–4.20).081.32 (0.76–2.29).19
Orofacial cleft0.75 (0.17–3.40).631.40 (0.76–2.59).16
Digestive system1.52 (0.51–4.51).321.30 (0.66–2.54).32
Nervous system0.83 (0.22–3.09).721.01 (0.51–2.03).96
Other malformationsc1.16 (0.36–3.79).741.08 (0.55–2.11).76
Eye0.89 (0.19–4.06).851.19 (0.58–2.46).52
Respiratory system4.65 (1.76–12.25)<.0011.34 (0.54–3.31).41
Genetic1.02 (0.37–2.81).96
Abdominal wall0.77 (0.15–3.96).68
Ear, face, and neck1.51 (0.34–6.64).48
  • —, no cases in the NRT group therefore no ORs presented.

  • a Reference category = control group.

  • b Adjusted for maternal age at conception, Townsend deprivation index score, maternal diabetes, asthma, mental illnesses, and multiple births.

  • c Including asplenia and conjoined twins.