Adjusted OR for MCAs in Children According to Maternal NRT Exposure During Early Pregnancy Compared With Maternal Smoking

VariableNRT Group
(n = 2677): Adjusted ORa,b (99% CI)P
All MCAs combined1.07 (0.78–1.47).58
Heart0.92 (0.52–1.62).72
Limb0.95 (0.45–2.01).87
Genital system1.21 (0.58–2.54).50
Urinary system1.98 (0.76–5.13).06
Chromosomal1.05 (0.24–4.62).92
Musculoskeletal1.37 (0.53–3.54).39
Orofacial cleft0.55 (0.11–2.71).33
Digestive system1.17 (0.34–3.97).74
Nervous system0.82 (0.20–3.41).72
Other malformationsc1.08 (0.29–3.97).88
Eye0.74 (0.15–3.77).64
Respiratory system3.49 (1.05–11.62).007
Abdominal wall
Ear, face, and neck
  • —, no cases in the NRT group therefore no ORs presented.

  • a Reference category = smokers.

  • b Adjusted for maternal age at conception, Townsend deprivation index score, maternal diabetes, asthma, mental illnesses, and multiple births.

  • c Including asplenia and conjoined twins.