TABLE 3

Absolute Risks of MCAs According to NRT Exposure and Maternal Smoking During Early Pregnancy

VariableAll Children
(N = 192 498)NRT Group
(n = 2677)Smokers
(n = 9980)Control Group
(n = 179 841)
nan/10 000nn/10 000nn/10 000nn/10 000
All MCAs combined5355288903363143155131285
Heart1782932697104104165292
Limb1071561556606099655
Genital system914471660515184747
Urinary system511271245201947927
Chromosomal40021415131338321
Musculoskeletal380201037282834219
Orofacial cleft27514311201925214
Digestive system28515622181826115
Nervous system29515415181727315
Other malformationsb28015519181825714
Eye22612311151420812
Respiratory system1578103710101378
Genetic16280991539
Abdominal wall322032292
Ear, face, and neck382032352
  • —, indicates no cases.

  • a The total number may vary because each case may have >1 system anomaly.

  • b Including asplenia and conjoined twins.