TABLE 1

Prevalence and Association of Physical Conditions and Mental Disorders by Gender and Age Group

Prevalence, %
Total (N = 9014)GenderAge GroupGender (Reference: Female)aAge Group (Reference: >18 y)a
Male (n = 4349)Female (n = 4665)<13 y (n = 3585)13–18 y (n = 3678)>18 y (n = 1751)<13 y13–18 y
aOR(95% CI)aOR(95% CI)aOR(95% CI)
Medical specialty/systemsb
 Allergy/immunologic
  Severe allergies0.91.00.90.91.10.61.11(0.72–1.72)1.34(0.67–2.67)1.63(0.83–3.20)
  Asthma/respiratory1.21.21.11.21.11.11.12(0.76–1.66)0.99(0.58–1.69)0.96(0.56–1.65)
  Autoimmune/inflammatory8.97.99.87.39.99.90.77(0.67–0.90)0.70(0.57–0.85)0.96(0.79–1.17)
 Cardiologic3.53.43.53.33.24.50.97(0.77–1.21)0.71(0.53–0.96)0.69(0.52–0.93)
 Endocrine/metabolic6.15.46.84.87.75.60.76(0.64–0.90)0.84(0.65–1.09)1.38(1.09–1.76)
 Eye/ear/nose/throat3.33.13.43.43.42.80.89(0.70–1.12)1.21(0.86–1.70)1.19(0.85–1.67)
 Gastroenterologic6.97.66.25.47.58.61.24(1.05–1.46)0.55(0.44–0.70)0.81(0.66–1.00)
 Hematologic3.94.33.63.54.24.31.26(1.02–1.56)0.79(0.59–1.06)0.97(0.73–1.29)
 Nephrology/urologic2.62.13.12.22.73.10.67(0.51–0.87)0.73(0.51–1.04)0.86(0.61–1.20)
 Neurologic
  Birth anomalies15.015.514.516.914.412.11.03(0.92–1.16)1.43(1.21–1.70)1.19(1.00–1.42)
  CNS19.620.518.816.019.227.71.15(1.04–1.28)0.47(0.41–0.55)0.60(0.53–0.69)
  Developmental18.021.414.819.818.014.01.53(1.38–1.71)1.47(1.25–1.73)1.33(1.13–1.56)
 Oncologic3.13.23.02.62.94.61.07(0.84–1.36)0.55(0.41–0.75)0.60(0.45–0.81)
 Orthopedic7.97.08.86.79.17.90.76(0.65–0.89)0.84(0.68–1.05)1.15(0.94–1.42)
Mental disordersc
 Anxiety disorders11.78.814.410.512.711.80.58(0.51–0.67)0.96(0.80–1.15)1.14(0.96–1.36)
 ADHD17.622.512.923.217.56.21.88(1.68–2.11)4.38(3.55–5.41)3.18(2.57–3.93)
 Behavior disorders18.220.915.715.522.913.81.51(1.35–1.69)1.19(1.01–1.41)2.01(1.71–2.35)
 Mood disorders12.49.215.55.115.720.40.60(0.52–0.68)0.22(0.19–0.27)0.75(0.65–0.87)
Subclinical psychosis symptoms21.422.520.318.525.019.51.20(1.08–1.33)0.96(0.83–1.12)1.44(1.25–1.66)
CGAS score ≤7023.324.722.019.425.227.51.23(1.12–1.36)0.65(0.57–0.74)0.92(0.81–1.05)
  • a aOR based on logistic regression models controlling for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and maternal education.

  • b Physical conditions based on electronic medical chart review and parent informant report (or proband report for youth aged ≥18 y).

  • c Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition indices of mental disorders: diagnosis algorithms considered endorsement of screen question, symptom count, duration, distress, and impairment. Anxiety disorders = agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, separation anxiety disorder; Behavior disorders = oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder; Mood disorders = major depressive disorder and mania; psychosis symptoms were based on subpsychotic positive symptoms (PRIME-Screen Revised), subthreshold negative/disorganized symptoms (6 SIPS ratings), and/or positive psychosis screen.