Table 4.

Intracranial Injuries in Normal* Children

AgeSexMechanismSymptomsSignsInjury†Surgery
2 wkFFall <5 ftNoneScalp hematoma and contusionParenchymal contusion, skull fxNo
1 moMFall <5 ftNoneScalp contusionIVH, skull fxNo
1 moMChild abuseNoneScalp hematomaIVH, brain edema, skull fxNo
3 moFFall <5 ftNoneScalp hematomaParenchymal contusionNo
3 moFFall <5 ftNoneScalp abrasion and contusionEpidural hematoma, skull fxNo
7 moMFall 5–9 ftDrowsyScalp abrasion and hematomaSubdural hematoma, skull fxNo
2 yMFall <5 ftHeadache, emesis, drowsyScalp contusionSubdural hematomaNo
3 yFFall 5–9 ft (stairs)HeadacheScalp hematomaSubdural hematoma, depressed skull fxNo
4 yFFall 10–19 ftEmesisScalp abrasion, contusion, hematomaPneumoencephalus, skull fx, orbital fxNo
5 yFFall 5–9 ftProgressive headache, emesis, drowsyScalp hematomaEpidural hematoma, skull fxYes, epidural evacuation
8 yMPedestrian motor vehicle collisionHeadache, dizzy, emesis, drowsyScalp hematomaParenchymal contusionNo
8 yMBicycle collisionHeadache, dizzyScalp hematoma, contusionParenchymal contusion, pneumoencephalus, skull fxNo
9 yFFall <5 ftHeadache, dizzy, emesis, drowsy, amnesiaScalp abrasion and contusionParenchymal contusionNo
9 yMFall 5–9 ftHeadache, emesis, drowsy, amnesiaScalp abrasion and contusionParenchymal contusion, depressed skull fxNo
9 yMBicycle collisionHeadacheScalp abrasion and hematomaSubdural hematomaNo
12 yMSkating collisionHeadache, dizzy, amnesia, emesisNoneParenchymal contusionNo
  • * Normal indicates alert mental status, no focal neurologic deficits.

  • fx indicates fracture; and IVH, intraventricular hemorrhage.