TABLE 3

Risk of TBI in All Patients With Nonisolated Headaches and Isolated Headaches–Extensive Definition

Headache characteristicNonisolated headache, N = 10 105Isolated Headache–Extensive Definition, N = 2462
ciTBIan/N (%, 95% CI)TBI on CT n/N (%, 95% CI)ciTBIan/N (%, 95% CI)TBI on CT n/N (%, 95% CI)
Any headache162/10 105 (1.6; 1.4–1.9)271/6089 (4.5; 3.9–5.0)0/2462 (0; 0–0.1)3/456 (0.7; 0.1–1.9)
Severity of headache
 Mild/barely noticeable25/3936 (0.6; 0.4–0.9)59/1652 (3.6; 2.7–4.6)0/1264 (0; 0–0.3)2/122 (1.6; 0.2–5.8)
 Moderate81/4595 (1.8; 1.4–2.2)133/3244 (4.1; 3.4–4.8)0/982 (0; 0–0.4)1/254 (0.4; 0–2.2)
 Severe/intense23/707 (3.3; 2.1–4.8)33/614 (5.4; 3.7–7.5)0/91 (0; 0–4.0)0/50 (0; 0–7.1)
 Unclear/missing33/867 (3.8; 2.6–5.3)46/579 (7.9; 5.9–10.5)0/125 (0; 0–2.9)0/30 (0; 0–11.6)
Onset of headache
 Before head injury0/63 (0; 0–5.7)0/31 (0; 0–11.2)0/25 (0; 0–13.7)0/3 (0; 0–70.8)
 Within 1 h after injury129/8388 (1.5; 1.3–1.8)220/5082 (4.3; 3.8–4.9)0/2013 (0; 0–0.2)3/374 (0.8; 0.2–2.3)
 1–4 h after injury2/471 (0.4; 0.1–1.5)4/252 (1.6; 0.4–4.0)0/143 (0; 0–2.5)0/36 (0; 0–9.7)
 >4 h after injury0/124 (0; 0–2.9)1/74 (1.4; 0–7.3)0/49 (0; 0–7.3)0/10 (0; 0–30.8)
 Unknown/missing31/1059 (2.9; 2.0–4.1)46/650 (7.1; 5.2–9.3)0/232 (0; 0–1.6)0/33 (0; 0–10.6)
Location of headache
 At occiput only and clearly due to backboard0/61 (0; 0–5.9)2/46 (4.3; 0.5–14.8)0/29 (0; 0–11.9)0/4 (0; 0–60.2)
 Only at site of injury76/5247 (1.4; 1.1–1.8)126/2611 (4.8; 4.0–5.7)0/1196 (0; 0–0.3)0/158 (0; 0–2.3)
 Diffuse42/2573 (1.6; 1.2–2.2)75/1930 (3.9; 3.1–4.8)0/655 (0; 0–0.6)2/165 (1.2; 0.1–4.3)
 Other10/843 (1.2; 0.6–2.2)14/598 (2.3; 1.3–3.9)0/270 (0; 0–1.4)1/66 (1.5; 0–8.2)
 Unclear/missing34/1381 (2.5; 1.7–3.4)54/904 (6.0; 4.5–7.7)0/312 (0; 0–1.2)0/63 (0; 0–5.7)
  • ciTBI, clinically-important traumatic brain injury; CT, computed tomography; TBI, traumatic brain injury.

  • a ciTBI definition: death, neurosurgical procedure, intubation for at least 24 h for TBI, or hospitalization for 2 or more nights due to the head trauma in association with TBI on cranial CT.