TABLE 1

Demographic Characteristics According to Race/Ethnicity

CharacteristicNon-Hispanic White (n = 8841)Non-Hispanic Black (n = 697)Hispanic (n = 1166)P
Age, ya 11.9 ± 3.611.9 ± 3.612.0 ± 3.4.32
Female gender 3915 (48)373 (54)593 (51)<.001
Diabetes duration, ya 5.2 ± 3.54.9 ± 3.44.9 ± 3.3.002
BMIa,b<.001
 Underweight/normal weight (<85th percentile)5742 (66)390 (57)656 (57)
 Overweight (85th–<95th percentile)1861 (21)158 (23)303 (26)
 Obese (≥95th percentile)1126 (13)139 (20)197 (17)
Total daily insulin dose per kga,c0.9 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.60.9 ± 0.4.04
Annual household income, $a,d<.001
 50 0001578 (24)286 (64)421 (54)
 50 000–<100 0002481 (38)101 (23)198 (26)
 ≥100 0002496 (38)58 (13)156 (20)
Highest parental education levela,e <.001
 Less than high school diploma2378 (29)321 (53)599 (58)
 Associate or bachelor degree3602 (43)216 (35)298 (29)
 Graduate degree2339 (28)72 (12)135 (13)
Health insurancef <.001
 Private6391 (79)233 (39)484 (50)
 Other or no insurance1679 (21)360 (61)476 (50)
  • Data are presented as mean ± SD or n (%).

  • a Continuous or ordinal variable was used to obtain test of significance in linear regression models.

  • b A total of 132 participants were missing BMI data (112 white, 10 black, and 10 Hispanic subjects).

  • c A total of 622 participants were missing total daily insulin dose per kilogram data (421 white, 81 black, and 120 Hispanic subjects).

  • d A total of 2929 participants were missing household income data (2286 white, 252 black, and 391 Hispanic subjects).

  • e A total of 744 participants were missing education data (522 white, 88 black, and 134 Hispanic subjects).

  • f A total of 1081 participants were missing insurance data (771 white, 104 black, and 206 Hispanic subjects). Other insurance included Medicaid and state- or government-sponsored health insurance plans. Fifty-four participants reported no insurance: 35 white, 4 black, and 15 Hispanic subjects.