TABLE 7

Risk of TBIs With PECARN-Isolated Severe Headaches (ie, Isolated Severe Headaches Based on the PECARN Prediction Rule Variables), Plus the Addition of 1 Other PECARN Prediction Rule Variable

PECARN Prediction Rule VariablesciTBI, n/N (%, 95% CI)TBI on CT, n/N (%, 95% CI)
Isolated severe HA3/209 (1.4; 0.3–4.1)4/128 (3.1; 0.9–7.8)
Severe HA plus altered mental statusa2/74 (2.7; 0.3–9.4)2/65 (3.1; 0.4–10.7)
Severe HA plus history of LOC0/121 (0; 0–3.0)1/107 (0.9; 0–5.1)
Severe HA plus clinical signs of basilar skull fracture0/3 (0; 0–70.8)0/3 (0; 0–70.8)
Severe HA and history of vomiting1/69 (1.4; 0–7.8)1/60 (1.7; 0–8.9)
Severe HA and severe mechanism of injuryb0/27 (0; 0–12.8)0/21 (0; 0–16.1)
  • ciTBI, clinically-important traumatic brain injury; HA, headache; LOC, loss of consciousness; TBI, traumatic brain injury.

  • a Defined as a GCS score of 14, agitation, sleepiness, slow to respond to verbal communication, or repetitive questioning.

  • b Motor vehicle crash with patient ejection, death of another passenger, or rollover; pedestrian or bicyclist without helmet struck by a motorized vehicle; falls >5 feet; or head struck by a high-impact object.