TABLE 3

Characteristics of Children in Underimmunization Spatial Clusters, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2010–2012

Underimmunization Cluster in Which Children Live
12345Outside of Spatial Clusters
Number of children34583934158788328240 089
Immunization characteristics
Number (%) underimmunizeda,b,c,d,e650 (18.8)690 (17.5)278 (17.5)160 (18.1)64 (22.7)4364 (10.9)
Number (%) who were shot-limitersa,b,c,d163 (4.7)154 (3.9)45 (2.8)59 (6.7)6 (2.1)749 (1.9)
Number (%) with ≥1 vaccine refusal diagnosisa,b,c,d287 (8.3)166 (4.2)81 (5.1)79 (8.9)6 (2.1)1133 (2.8)
Patient characteristics
 Gender, n (%)e
 Female1683 (48.7)2164 (48.8)759 (47.8)399 (45.2)125 (55.3)19 170 (48.3)
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)a,b,c,d,e
  Black458 (13.2)130 (3.3)103 (6.5)16 (1.8)59 (20.9)2155 (5.4)
  Asian629 (18.2)381 (9.7)150 (9.5)161 (18.2)48 (17.0)10 686 (26.7)
  Hispanic589 (17.0)879 (22.3)242 (15.2)64 (7.2)76 (27.0)9700 (24.2)
  White1397 (40.4)2381 (60.5)1030 (64.9)560 (63.4)77 (27.3)13 995 (34.9)
Neighborhood characteristicsf
 % Blacka,b,d,e17362196
 % Asiana,b,c,d,e1887171525
 % Hispanica,b,c,d182416102625
 % Whitea,b,c,d,e415966683138
 % Spanish speakersa,b,c,d1519981618
 Median household incomea,b,c,d,e87 46283 07265 022119 62761 04491 080
 % Households with below-poverty incomea,c,d,e128107148
 % Occupied housing units that are occupied by ownersa,c,d,e506360535463
 % Adults with less than high school educationa,b,c,d,e13141281814
 % Adults with graduate or professional degreea,b,c,d,e178622611
  • a Children living in cluster 1 were significantly different from children outside of any underimmunization cluster at P ≤ .05.

  • b Children living in cluster 2 were significantly different from children outside of any underimmunization cluster at P ≤ .05.

  • c Children living in cluster 3 were significantly different from children outside of any underimmunization cluster at P ≤ .05.

  • d Children living in cluster 4 were significantly different from children outside of any underimmunization cluster at P ≤ .05.

  • e Children living in cluster 5 were significantly different from children outside of any underimmunization cluster at P ≤ .05.

  • f Based on block group statistics from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey.