Ordered Probit Model Assessing Correlates of Harm Perception of Heavy Smoking

OR (95% CI)aAverage Marginal Effectsb
No HarmA Lot of Harm
Prob. (%)P valueProb. (%)P value
 Non-Hispanic white1.00(Ref.)
 Non-Hispanic black0.76(0.70–0.82)1.2<.001−5.0<.001
 Non-Hispanic Asian0.96(0.78–1.18)0.1.71−0.6.71
Age, y
Smoking pattern
 Intermittent smoker0.62(0.56–0.69)2.7<.001−10.4<.001
 Light smoker0.56(0.46–0.68)3.7<.001−13.5<.001
 Heavier smoker0.31(0.25–0.38)12.9<.001−33.8<.001
Alternative tobacco use
E-cigarette use
Family use of tobacco
Model coefficients
 Cut 10.09(0.09–0.10)
 Cut 20.14(0.13–0.15)
 Cut 30.24(0.22–0.26)
  • a OR displayed are from the weighted multivariate ordered probit model in which all listed covariates are included, with 95% CI calculated by Taylor series linearization to account for the complex survey design.

  • b Average marginal effects estimate the average change of altering each covariate (eg, being an intermittent smoker compared with being a nonsmoker) among the study population, estimating the likelihood that an individual perceived heavy smoking as causing no harm or a lot of harm.