TABLE 4

Gluten Introduction Under Conditions of Long-Term Continued Breastfeeding (>1 Mo), Short-Term Continued Breastfeeding (Continued ≤1 Mo After Gluten Introduction), and Discontinued Breastfeeding Before Gluten Introduction and the Risk for CDA and CD

Continued Breastfeeding at Time of Gluten IntroductionCDA (n = 773)CD (n = 307)
n (%)aHR (95% CI)bPn (%)aHR (95% CI)bP
Long-term (continued >1 mo)474 (13)1.23 (1.05–1.44).0107186 (5)1.13 (0.88–1.46).3249
Short-term (continued ≤1 mo)62 (12)1.08 (0.82–1.44).572925 (5)1.07 (0.69–1.67).7571
Discontinued previous gluten introduction231 (10)193 (4)1
  • CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio.

  • a Proportion of exposed children with CDA or CD in each time period.

  • b Adjusted for country, HLA, gender, family history of CD, and age at gluten introduction.